Spindle cell (sarcomatoid) carcinomas of the larynx: a clinicopathologic study of 187 cases.

Thompson LD, Wieneke JA, Miettinen M, Heffner DK.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2002 Feb;26(2):153-70.
Laryngeal spindle cell (sarcomatoid) carcinomas are uncommon tumors, frequently misdiagnosed as reactive lesions or mesenchymal malignancies. The records of 187 patients with tumors diagnosed as laryngeal spindle cell (sarcomatoid) carcinoma were retrieved from the files of the Otorhinolaryngic Tumor Registry of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. There were 174 men and 13 women, 35-92 years of age (average, 65.6 years). Nearly all patients experienced hoarseness (n = 165 [88%] patients) for a mean duration of 11.0 months. Patients admitted to smoking (n = 162 [87%] patients) and/or alcohol use (n = 90 [48%] patients). Most tumors were glottic (n = 132 [71%]), T1 (n = 111 [59%]), 1 and polypoid (n = 185 [99%]), with a mean tumor size of 1.8 cm. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma (n = 157 [84%]) was noted, ulcerated, and blended with the spindle cell component, which was most frequently arranged in a storiform pattern (n = 92 [49%] tumors). Foci of benign or malignant cartilage and/or bone (n = 13 [7%]) were noted in the spindle cell component. All patients were treated with surgery (n = 90 [48%] patients) or surgery with radiation (n = 97 [52%] patients). Recurrences developed in 85 (45%) patients. Overall, T1 glottic tumors managed by complete surgical eradication had the best outcome (mean follow-up, 7.8 years).
PubMed ID: 11812937
Article Size: <1 MB

Exophytic and papillary squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx: A clinicopathologic series of 104 cases.

Thompson LD, Wenig BM, Heffner DK, Gnepp DR.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999 May;120(5):718-24.
Exophytic and papillary squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are uncommon variants of SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract mucosa. The histomorphologic distinction between these variants has not been previously attempted or correlated with prognostic outcome. One hundred four cases of exophytic and papillary SCCs of the larynx were identified in the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology from 1971 to 1991. The patients included 25 women and 79 men, aged 27 to 89 years (average 60.7 years). Patients had hoarseness at presentation, and many patients were using tobacco (n = 87) and/or alcohol (n = 49). Tumors measured up to 6 cm in greatest dimension. The larger tumors were associated with vocal cord impairment (n = 39). Histologically, the SCCs were divided into 2 growth patterns: papillary-frond (n = 12) or broad-based, exophytic (n = 92). Patients were treated with excisional biopsy, vocal cord stripping, and/or laryngectomy, in conjunction with radiation therapy (n = 70). Eighty-seven patients had no evidence of disease at last follow-up (average follow-up 8.6 years). Seventeen patients with an exophytic pattern died with disease (10 disseminated disease; 7 local disease). No patients with papillary patterns died of disease, although there had been 4 recurrences. In conclusion, patients with papillary and exophytic SCCs have a better prognosis than those with conventional SCCs, and the prognosis for those with papillary SCCs is even better.
PubMed ID: 10229599
Article Size: <1 MB

Laryngeal Dysplasia, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Variants

Thompson, LDR.
Surg Pathol Clin. 2017 Mar;10(1):15-33.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a malignant epithelial tumor showing evidence of squamous differentiation. It is the most common malignancy of the larynx, with several variants (verrucous, exophytic or papillary, spindle-cell, basaloid, acantholytic, adenosquamous) recognized, with well-established precursor lesions. Dysplasia is now separated into only low-grade and high-grade categories. Each SCC variant has unique cytomorphologic features and histologic differential diagnoses that are important to consider, as management and outcomes are different.
PubMed ID: 28153131
Article Size: 13 MB

Chondrosarcoma of the larynx: a clinicopathologic study of 111 cases with a review of the literature.

Thompson LD, Gannon FH.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2002 Jul;26(7):836-51.
Chondrosarcomas of the larynx are rare tumors accounting for about 0.5% of all laryngeal primary tumors. A total of 111 laryngeal chondrosarcoma cases, diagnosed between 1970 and 1997, were retrieved from the Otorhinolaryngic-Head & Neck Tumor Registry of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. There was a 3.6:1 male/female ratio of patients 25-91 years of age (mean, 64.4 years). Patients presented most frequently with hoarseness (n = 72 patients) present for a mean of 28.2 months. The majority of tumors involved the cricoid cartilage (n = 77) with a mean size of 3.5 cm. All tumors were invasive and malignant by radiology and/or histology (into bone within the ossified laryngeal cartilages in 52 tumors). Most tumors were low-grade lesions: grade 1 (n = 51), grade 2 (n = 54); there were six grade 3 tumors. An associated benign chondroma with (n = 41 tumors) or without ischemia (n = 24 tumors) was noted. All patients had surgery and five had radiation therapy. Wide excision or voice-sparing surgery was used in 73 patients, whereas 37 patients had a laryngectomy. Recurrences occurred in 20 (18%) patients, 10 of whom underwent salvage laryngectomy. At the last follow-up, 102 patients had no evidence of disease (alive or dead, mean 11.2 years) and five patients had evidence of disease (alive, one patient, 6.5 years; dead, four patients, mean 6.4 years). The six patients with high-grade chondrosarcoma were all without disease at the last follow-up (mean, 15.1 years). There was no difference in clinical outcome based on grade (p = 0.210), location (p = 0.078), or treatment (p = 0.607) but was worse for patients with a myxoid-type chondrosarcoma (p = 0.044). Primary laryngeal chondrosarcomas are typically low- to moderate-grade lesions involving the cricoid cartilage, frequently associated with a chondroma. They usually portend an excellent overall long-term prognosis with initial conservative voice-sparing surgery.
PubMed ID: 12131151
Article Size: 1 MB

Amyloidosis of the larynx: a clinicopathologic study of 11 cases.

Thompson LD, Derringer GA, Wenig BM.
Mod Pathol. 2000 May;13(5):528-35.
Laryngeal amyloidosis (LA) is uncommon and poorly understood, with limited long-term clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic studies in the literature. Eleven cases of LA were retrieved from the files of the Otorhinolaryngic-Head & Neck Tumor Registry from 1953 to 1990. The histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and follow-up were reviewed. All patients (three women and eight men) presented with hoarseness at an average age of 37.8 years. The lesions, polypoid or granular, measured an average of 1.6 cm and involved the true vocal cords only (n = 4), false vocal cord only (n = 1), or were transglottic (n = 6). An acellular, amorphous, eosinophilic material was present in the stroma, often accentuated around vessels and seromucous glands, which reacted positively with Congo red. A sparse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was present in all cases that demonstrated light chain restriction by immunohistochemistry in three cases (kappa = 2, lambda = 1). Serum and urine electrophoreses were negative in all patients. Treatment was limited to surgical excision, including a single laryngectomy. Six patients manifested either recurrent and/or multifocal/systemic disease: two patients with light chain restriction were dead with recurrent disease (mean, 11.1 years); two patients were dead with no evidence of disease (mean, 31.7 years); and two patients were alive, one with light chain restriction and recurrent and multifocal disease (41.6 years) and one with no evidence of disease after a single recurrence (43.4 years). The remaining five patients were either alive or had died with no evidence of disease an average of 32.4 years after diagnosis. No patient developed multiple myeloma or an overt B-cell lymphoma. LA is an uncommon indolent lesion that may be associated with multifocal disease (local or systemic). The presence of an associated monoclonal lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and recurrent/multifocal disease in the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract of a few cases and the lack of development of a systemic plasma cell dyscrasia or overt systemic B-cell malignancy suggest that some LA may be the result of an immunocyte dyscrasia or tumor of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.
PubMed ID: 10824924
Article Size: 1.5 MB

Biomarkers predicting malignant progression of laryngeal epithelial precursor lesions: a systematic review.

Rodrigo JP, García-Pedrero JM, Suárez C, Takes RP, Thompson LD, Slootweg PJ, Woolgar JA, Westra WH, Brakenhoff RH, Rinaldo A, Devaney KO, Williams MD, Gnepp DR, Ferlito A.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2012 Apr;269(4):1073-83
Some laryngeal epithelial precursor lesions progress to invasive carcinoma and others do not. Routine light microscopic classification has limited value in predicting the evolution of these lesions. This article reviews the experience to date with the use of molecular markers for the prognostic evaluation of laryngeal epithelial precursor lesions. We conducted a thorough review of the published literature to identify those studies using biomarkers to predict malignant progression of laryngeal epithelial precursor lesions. Of the 336 studies identified in this systematic search, 15 met the inclusion criteria and form the basis of this review. Limited studies suggest that certain biomarkers are potentially reliable predictors of malignant progression including various regulators of cell adhesion and invasion (e.g. FAK, cortactin, osteopontin, and CD44v6) and proliferation-associated markers such as TGF-?RII and Kv3.4. The predictive value of these markers, however, has yet to be confirmed in large-scale prospective studies. Although the cell cycle-related proteins are the most frequently studied markers, none have been consistently reliable across multiple studies. The absence of standardization in methodologies, test interpretation, and other parameters may contribute to study inconsistencies. Various biomarkers have proved to have potential prognostic value and could be clinically relevant. The utility and prognostic power of these biomarkers should be confirmed in large, well-designed, standardized prospective studies.
PubMed ID: 22081098
Article Size: <1 MB

Solitary fibrous tumor of the larynx.

Thompson LDR, Karamurzin Y, Wu ML, Kim JH.
Head Neck Pathol. 2008 Jun;2(2):67-74.
BACKGROUND: True mesenchymal, non-cartilaginous neoplasms of the larynx are rare. Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a localized neoplasm characterized by proliferation of thin-walled vessels and collagen-producing cells and is considered within the ‘hemangiopericytoma-solitary fibrous tumor’ spectrum. SFT primary in the larynx is exceptional.
DESIGN: Case report set in a comparison with other cases reported in the English literature (MEDLINE 1966 to 2007).
RESULTS: A 49-year old white male presented with difficulty breathing, progressive over the past 2 years. He denied dysphagia and weight loss. Past medical history was significant for asthma. He denied cigarette smoking or alcohol abuse. There were no cervical deformities on physical exam. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy was performed upon stabilization of respiratory function. A smooth, round, submucosal mass measuring 2.3 cm in greatest diameter arising from the inferior surface of left true vocal cord was causing near total obstruction of the endolaryngeal space. The mass was excised. The surface mucosa was intact and unremarkable. A cellular, spindle cell neoplasm was arranged in loose fascicles, associated with heavy collagen fiber deposition. The collagen was wiry and heavy. Cells were bland with cytoplasmic extensions. The nuclei were vesicular to hyperchromatic and elongated with inconspicuous nucleoli. Vessels were prominent and delicate, with patulous spaces. Mitotic figures were easily identified, but atypical forms were not present. The cells were strongly and diffusely immunoreactive with CD34 and bcl-2, while non-reactive with cytokeratin, EMA, actin, ALK-1, S100, desmin, and CD117. These findings confirmed a diagnosis of extraplural solitary fibrous tumor. Without further disease, the patient is alive without evidence of disease, 12 months after surgery. Conclusions The characteristic histologic pattern of solitary fibrous tumor can be noted in extrapulmonary locations. Development in the larynx is uncommon, but the tumor presents as a polypoid mass with characteristic histologic and immunophenotypic features. Conservative local excision is the treatment of choice to yield an excellent prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: The characteristic histologic pattern of solitary fibrous tumor can be noted in extrapulmonary locations. Development in the larynx is uncommon, but the tumor presents as a polypoid mass with characteristic histologic and immunophenotypic features. Conservative local excision is the treatment of choice to yield an excellent prognosis.
PubMed ID: 20614325
Article Size: <1 MB

Molecular diagnostic alterations in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and potential diagnostic applications.

Hunt JL, Barnes L, Lewis JS Jr, Mahfouz ME, Slootweg PJ, Thompson LD, Cardesa A, Devaney KO, Gnepp DR, Westra WH, Rodrigo JP, Woolgar JA, Rinaldo A, Triantafyllou A, Takes RP, Ferlito A.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014 Feb;271(2):211-23
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common malignancy that continues to be difficult to treat and cure. In many organ systems and tumor types, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the molecular basis for tumorigenesis, disease progression and genetic implications for therapeutics. Although tumorigenesis pathways and the molecular etiologies of HNSCC have been extensively studied, there are still very few diagnostic clinical applications used in practice today. This review discusses current clinically applicable molecular markers, including viral detection of Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus, and molecular targets that are used in diagnosis and management of HNSCC. The common oncogenes EGFR, RAS, CCND1, BRAF, and PIK3CA and tumor suppressor genes p53, CDKN2A and NOTCH are discussed for their associations with HNSCC. Discussion of markers with potential future applications is also included, with a focus on molecular alterations associated with targeted therapy resistance.
PubMed ID: 23467835
Article Size: <1 MB

Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Larynx: A Collective International Review

Coca-Pelaz A, Barnes L, Rinaldo A, Cardesa A, Shah JP, Rodrigo JP,, Suárez C,, Eloy JA, Bishop JA, Devaney KO, Thompson LD, Wenig BM, Strojan P, Hamoir M, Bradley PJ,, Gnepp DR,, Silver CE, Slootweg PJ, Triantafyllou A, Vander Poorten V,, Williams MD, Skálová A, Hellquist H, Teymoortash A, Medina JE, Robbins KT, Pitman KT, Kowalski LP, de Bree R, Mendenhall WM, Takes RP, Ferlito A.
Adv Ther. 2016 Apr;33(4):553-79.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) of the head and neck is a well-recognized pathologic entity that rarely occurs in the larynx. Although the 5-year locoregional control rates are high, distant metastasis has a tendency to appear more than 5 years post treatment. Because AdCC of the larynx is uncommon, it is difficult to standardize a treatment protocol. One of the controversial points is the decision whether or not to perform an elective neck dissection on these patients. Because there is contradictory information about this issue, we have critically reviewed the literature from 1912 to 2015 on all reported cases of AdCC of the larynx in order to clarify this issue. During the most recent period of our review (1991-2015) with a more exact diagnosis of the tumor histology, 142 cases were observed of AdCC of the larynx, of which 91 patients had data pertaining to lymph node status. Eleven of the 91 patients (12.1%) had nodal metastasis and, based on this low proportion of patients, routine elective neck dissection is therefore not recommended.
PubMed ID: 27084720
Article Size: <1 MB

Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas: Clinical manifestations and prognostic significance.

Ferlito A, Rinaldo A, Bishop JA, Hunt JL, Poorten VV, Williams MD, Triantafyllou A, Devaney KO, Gnepp DR, Kusafuka K, Halmos GB, Westra WH, Takes RP, Thompson LDR
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Mar;273(3):533-6.
Paraneoplastic syndromes are associated with a variety of malignant neoplasms and are systemic and nonmetastatic manifestations that develop in a minority of cancer patients. This review examines all published cases of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with neuroendocrine carcinomas of the larynx. There are a total of ten patients reported with paraneoplastic syndromes associated with laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas in the literature. Of these, nine died and the tenth is alive with liver metastases. There were five cases of small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, four cases of moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma, and one case of well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma associated with paraneoplastic syndromes. As these syndromes have significant clinical relevance, physicians should be aware of the possible presence of paraneoplastic syndromes in the diagnostic process of patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx.
PubMed ID: 25351497
Article Size: <1 MB

Laryngeal angiosarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of five cases with a review of the literature.

Loos BM, Wieneke JA, Thompson LD.
Laryngoscope. 2001 Jul;111(7):1197-202.
OBJECTIVE: Primary laryngeal angiosarcoma (LA) is rare without a reported series evaluating these tumors.
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: Five patients with LA were retrospectively retrieved from the Otorhinolaryngic Registry of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
RESULTS: Three men and 2 women, aged 29 to 71 years, presented with hoarseness (n = 4) and hemoptysis (n = 1). Two patients had previous neck radiation. The tumors involved the supraglottis (n = 4) with a mean size of 3.1 cm. Histologically, all tumors had anastomosing vascular channels lined by remarkably atypical endothelial cells protruding into the lumen, frequent atypical mitotic figures, and hemorrhage. All cases tested (n = 4) demonstrated immunoreactivity with antibodies to Factor VIII-RA and CD34. All patients had surgery followed by postoperative radiation (n = 3 patients). Three patients died with disease (mean, 17 mo), whereas one patient is alive with no evidence of disease at 18 years.
CONCLUSIONS: LA is a rare tumor, frequently associated with previous radiation, usually involving the supraglottis with characteristic histomorphologic and immunophenotypic features. LA has a poor prognosis, making appropriate separation from other conditions important.
PubMed ID: 11568541
Article Size: <1 MB

Giant cell tumor of the larynx: a clinicopathologic series of eight cases and a review of the literature.

Wieneke JA, Gannon FH, Heffner DK, Thompson LD.
Mod Pathol. 2001 Dec;14(12):1209-15.
True giant cell tumors of the larynx (GCTL) are quite rare, and only individual case reports are documented in the literature. Eight cases of GCTL were identified in the Otorhinolaryngic Pathology Tumor Registry between 1966 and 2000. There were 2 women and 6 men, ages 26 to 62 years (mean, 44.5 yrs). Patients presented with a palpable neck mass (n = 5), airway obstruction (n = 3), hoarseness (n = 3), and dysphagia (n = 2). All tumors involved the thyroid cartilage, a few with local extension. The mean tumor size was 4.1 cm. Histologically, the tumors showed no connection to the surface epithelium and arose in sites of ossification. The tumors had an expansile, infiltrative growth and consisted of numerous multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells within a cellular stroma composed of plump, oval mononuclear cells. Of interest was that the nuclei of the giant cells were similar to the nuclei of the stromal cells. Treatment included biopsy only with adjuvant therapy (n = 2), local resection (n = 3), and total laryngectomy (n = 3). Follow-up showed 5 patients were alive without evidence of disease (mean follow-up, 6.9 yrs); 2 died of unrelated causes (mean survival, 22.2 yrs). No patients developed recurrences. GCTL are rare tumors that can cause significant airway obstruction. Complete surgical resection yields an excellent outcome without adjuvant therapy.
PubMed ID: 11743042
Article Size: 2 MB

Hodgkin-like transformation of a marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the larynx.

Fung EK, Neuhauser TS, Thompson LD.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2002 Feb;6(1):61-6.
Primary larynx lymphomas, specifically of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are a rare but documented phenomenon. Transformation of any type of lymphoma that has the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells is unusual in lymph nodes and exceptional in extranodal sites. Herein, we report the first case (to the best of our knowledge in a review of the English literature [MEDLINE 1966-2001]) in which both of these unusual findings are present; that is, an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of laryngeal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue with Hodgkin-like transformation. The patient is a 78-year-old man who presented with intermittent shortness of breath, progressive dysphagia, and intermittent hoarseness. On examination, a large mass of the left supraglottic larynx was identified with a ‘ball-valve’ effect into the laryngeal inlet with inspiration. Examination of the neck showed no palpable masses. Histologic examination of the incisional biopsy showed replacement of the submucosa by sheets of atypical monocytoid B cells (CD20+, CD79a+, lambda+, CD3-) characterized by nuclear atypia, mitotic activity, plasmacytoid differentiation, and restricted for lambda light chains. Dutcher bodies were easily identified. Interspersed throughout the neoplastic lymphoid population were numerous Reed-Sternberg cells and variants immunoreactive for CD30 and CD15 and nonreactive for CD45RB. The patient was treated with 44 cGy to the neck and larynx and was alive and free of disease at last contact, 2.6 years after the original presentation.
PubMed ID: 11842381
Article Size: <1 MB

Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas of the larynx: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

Garcia RE, Gannon FH, Thompson LD.
Laryngoscope. 2002 Jun;112(6):1015-8.
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the long-term clinical outcome of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma or chondrosarcoma with additional malignant mesenchymal component (CAMMC) of the larynx and compare the results with those of axial chondrosarcomas.
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: Two patients with CAMMC of the larynx (0.03%) were retrospectively identified within the archives of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology between 1970 and 2001. We compared the clinical and histologic features of these two cases with those reported in the English literature (Medline 1966-2001) (Table I).
RESULTS: Patient no. 1 was a 67-year-old man who presented with a 12-month history of hoarseness and was found to have a 4-cm mass involving the cricoid cartilage. Enucleation was performed and histologically demonstrated a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. Without additional intervention, the patient died after 136 months without evidence of disease. Patient no. 2 was a 41-year-old man who also presented with a 12-month history of hoarseness and dysphagia and was found to have a 5-cm mass involving the cricoid cartilage. A total laryngectomy was performed for the dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. He is alive without evidence of disease at last contact (91 mo).
CONCLUSION: CAMMC of the larynx are rare tumors but have a better prognosis than their axial counterparts (mean, 6 mo). Initial voice-sparing surgery can be followed with more aggressive surgery if recurrences develop.
PubMed ID: 12160266
Article Size: <1 MB

Diagnostically challenging lesions in head and neck pathology.

Thompson LD.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1997;254(8):357-66.
There are a variety of diagnostically challenging lesions in the head and neck region. Contact ulcer usually occurs within specific clinical parameters (vocal abuse, post-intubation and gastro-esophageal reflux), which should be documented in correlation with the granulation tissue-like response affecting the posterior vocal cords. Spindle squamous cell carcinoma (carcinosarcoma) presents a variably cellular spindle cell proliferation, often with surface epithelial ulceration. The clinical presentation of a firm, polypoid mass in the larynx, combined with the histomorphologic features of a spindle cell tumor, can be confirmed to be of epithelial origin when a portion of the overlying epithelium is seen to blend with the spindle cell component, or when ancillary studies authenticate the epithelial origin of the tumor. The diagnosis of a verrucous squamous cell carcinoma can only be made accurately with an accurate clinical history. The very well differentiated histologic appearance, a broad pushing border of infiltration, a bland epithelial proliferation with scant mitotic activity and ‘church-spire’-type keratosis coupled with the clinical presentation of a large, locally destructive lesion, can confirm the diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma. A wide variety of disorders can result in midline destructive disease clinically, but a specific etiology must be sought to provide appropriate clinical management. Angiocentric T/NK-cell lymphoma of the sinonasal tract is one such disease. The atypical lymphoid cells are usually angiocentric and angiodestructive in their growth pattern. Identification of the atypical cells in the early stages of disease may be difficult, often requiring multiple biopsies over time with the application of immunohistochemical stains or molecular studies to accurately identify the nature of the infiltrate. Cystic squamous cell carcinoma in the neck is almost always a manifestation of metastatic tumor and not a brachiogenic carcinoma. When specific histomorphologic features are noted (a large, unfilled cyst lined by a ribbon-like or endophytic growth of a ‘transitional’-appearing squamous epithelium with a limited degree of anaplasia), most of these tumors demonstrate primaries in Waldeyer’s ring, often of a very small size. Adequate clinical work-up (pan-endoscopy, extensive radiographic imaging and random biopsies or prophylactic tonsillectomy) is mandatory in order to limit the radiation-therapy ports and to document the location of the primary, yielding an excellent long-term prognosis.
PubMed ID: 9332890
Article Size: <1 MB

Neuroendocrine tumors of the larynx.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2016 Jul;95(7):262-6.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx encompass five separate tumors: paraganglioma, typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell carcinoma, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Many synonyms are employed, with well-, moderately, and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma commonly applied to the middle three tumors (World Health Organization preferred terminology). Paraganglioma is an exceedingly uncommon neuroendocrine tumor in the larynx, as is large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and therefore these will not be further discussed.
PubMed ID: 27434472
Article Size: <1 MB

Larynx: nodules and polyps.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2013 Sep;92(9):426-8.
FIRST PARAGRAPHS: Nodules usually affect the anterior to middle thirds of the true vocal folds, and they are nearly always bilateral. About 1.5% of the overall population suffers from hoarseness; among the most common causes of hoarseness are vocal fold nodules and polyps. Vocal fold nodules and polyps represent reactive changes of the laryngeal mucosa and adjacent stroma that result in benign nodular or polypoid growths. Their etiology is multifactorial, but vocal misuse is one of the most common causes, followed by infection, smoking, and hypothyroidism. Extroverts are more likely to develop nodules and polyps.
PubMed ID: 24057901
Article Size: <1 MB

Laryngeal spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2011 May;90(5):214-6.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCSCC) is a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with a biphasic appearance, yielding a spindle cell transformation. Many names have been used in the past, but the terminology used here highlights the spindled and squamous cell appearance. As with all cases of upper aerodigestive tract SCC, there is a strong association with smoking and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, radiation exposure is occasionally reported in patients with SCSCC. This SCC variant accounts for approximately 2 to 3% of all laryngeal tumors. Men are affected much more frequently than women (12:1 ratio), and the incidence peaks in the seventh decade of life.
PubMed ID: 21563088
Article Size: <1 MB

Laryngeal granular cell tumor.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2009 Mar;88(3):824-5.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Granular cell tumors, also called Abrikossoff tumors, are benign, slowly growing neoplasms, presumably of Schwann cell origin. They may occur anywhere in the body, although 50% occur in the head and neck. The most common site is the tongue; the larynx is involved in approximately 10% of all cases. Granular cell tumors typically develop in the fourth and fifth decades of life; they are quite rare in children. Blacks are affected more commonly than other races. A slight female preponderance has been reported. As many as 10% of patients experience multifocal synchronous or metachronous tumors.
PubMed ID: 19291628
Article Size: <1 MB

Laryngeal squamous papilloma.

Thompson L.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2007 Jul;86(7):379
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Squamous papilloma (SP) is the most common benign laryngeal tumor. It is caused by the human papillomavirus. Clinically, SP rarely occurs as a solitary lesion; most arise as multiple, recurrent tumors, usually in children. SPs generally originate in the true and false vocal folds; they may spread to other sites in the oral cavity and aerodigestive tract. They form at the juxtaposition of the squamous and respiratory epithelia. If an area of juxtaposition is artificially induced (such as by squamous metaplasia), spread of the disease may result. There is a characteristic bimodal age distribution, with a juvenile peak at 5 years and an adult peak between 20 and 40 years. The disease course tends to be more aggressive in children, who frequently develop recurrent and progressive disease. The relatively small diameter of the airways in children may account for some of the severe respiratory embarrassment they experience. There is a slight male predominance in adults. Patients usually present with dysphonia and hoarseness.
PubMed ID: 17702311
Article Size: <1 MB

Larynx amyloidosis.

Akst LM, Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2003 Nov;82(11):844-5.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Amyloidosis is a benign accumulation of extracellular, insoluble, fibrillar protein. In general, the deposition of amyloid may be either localized or systemic and either primary or secondary. Laryngeal amyloidosis is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all benign laryngeal tumors. When it does occur, it is commonly localized and primary. Multifocal disease is present in up to 15% of patients. The disease typically manifests as hoarseness or vocal changes in the fifth to sixth decades, and it affects men and women equally.
PubMed ID: 14661432
Article Size: <1 MB

Tracheopathia osteoplastica.

Penner CR, Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2003 Jun;82(6):427.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Tracheopathia osteoplastica (tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica) is a segmental degenerative disorder of the tracheobronchial tree. It is characterized by multiple submucosal cartilaginous and osseous nodules of various sizes that cause a narrowing of the upper respiratory tract. This disorder is most common in elderly men, and it is occasionally associated with chronic inflammation or with trauma. Tracheopathia osteoplastica can manifest clinically as nonspecific signs and symptoms, although stridor and dyspnea are common. Radiologic studies may suggest the diagnosis if scalloped nodular calcified opacities are seen in the submucosa. The diagnosis is confirmed after endoscopic and pathologic examination.
PubMed ID: 12861866
Article Size: <1 MB

Herpes simplex virus laryngitis.

Thompson L.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2006 May;85(5):304.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Both infectious and inflammatory conditions can result in laryngitis, which is divided into acute and chronic forms. Some conditions are more frequent in adults, while others are more common in children. Laryngitis (‘croup,’ epiglottitis, and laryngotracheobronchitis) has many causes, including viral, bacterial, mycotic, or mycobacterial infections, trauma, neoplasms, vascular compromise during surgery, iatrogenic injury from feeding tubes or tracheostomy tubes, foreign-body impaction, and radiation therapy. A number of etiologies may be present synchronously, such that an infection may develop in association with radiation therapy, for example. Therefore, multiple etiologies may need to be addressed.
PubMed ID: 16771019
Article Size: <1 MB

Exophytic and papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.

Kardon DE, Thompson LDR.
Pathol Case Rev 2000;5(4):196-199.
Conventional squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the larynx presents as a largely flat or ulcerated lesion and is usually categorized histologically as in situ, superficially invasive, or deeply invasive. Papillary and exophytic squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx represent uncommon but distinct subtypes of SCC. As implied by their designations, these tumor types show predominant papillary or exophytic growth in the form of finger-like or filiform and broad-based bulbous fronds, respectively. Both tumor types are composed of cytologically malignant squamous epithelium. The following case illustrates the clinical and pathologic features of papillary squamous cell carcinoma and emphasizes the importance of distinguishing this entity from conventional squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.
PubMed ID: n/a
Article Size: 2.5 MB

Larynx contact ulcer.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2005 Jun;84(6):340.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: A larynx contact ulcer, also known as a pyogenic granuloma, is a benign lesion that is most common among adult men. Patients present with hoarseness and/or throat pain, and they often experience chronic throat-clearing or habitual coughing. Contact ulcer is associated with vocal abuse, intubation, and acid regurgitation. Intubation-induced contact ulcer is more common among females, especially in an emergent setting when an inappropriately sized endotracheal tube has been placed. Gastrolaryngeal reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is frequently missed because physicians do not correlate the nonspecific gastric symptoms with the laryngeal symptoms. A hiatal hernia, peptic esophagitis, or gastritis can cause acid reflux, usually during sleep, thereby leading to the development of a contact ulcer without the cause being obvious to the patient.
PubMed ID: 16075851
Article Size: <1 MB

Chondrosarcoma of the larynx.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2004 Sep;83(9):609.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Chondrosarcoma of the larynx accounts for approximately 0.2% of all head and neck malignancies and approximately 1% of all laryngeal malignant tumors, although it is the most common nonepithelial neoplasm of the larynx. Men are affected more frequently than women (3:1 ratio), usually during the middle to later decades of life. Patients present with a variety of symptoms as a result of tumor growth, including dyspnea, dysphagia, hoarseness, airway obstruction, and/or pain.
PubMed ID: 15529643
Article Size: <1 MB

The importance of histological types for treatment and prognosis in laryngeal cancer.

Ferlito A, Thompson LDR, Cardesa A, Gnepp DR, Devaney KO, Rodrigo JP, Hunt JL, Rinaldo A, Takes RP.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013 Feb;270(2):401-3
FIRST PARAGRAPH: The classification of neoplasms is an important matter, with correlation of a tumor’s type with its biological behavior. To provide internationally acceptable criteria for the histological diagnosis of tumors, the World Health Organization (WHO) published an updated Pathology and Genetics of Head and Neck Tumours Classification of Tumours in 2005, which included tumors of the hypopharynx, larynx and trachea.
PubMed ID: 23315201
Article Size: <1 MB

Causes of death of patients with laryngeal cancer.

Ferlito A, Haigentz M Jr, Bradley PJ, Suárez C, Strojan P, Wolf GT, Olsen KD, Mendenhall WM, Mondin V, Rodrigo JP, Boedeker CC, Hamoir M, Hartl DM, Hunt JL, Devaney KO, Thompson LD, Rinaldo A, Takes RP.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014 Mar;271(3):425-34.
Despite remarkable advances in the care of patients with laryngeal cancer over the past several decades, including a growing awareness of therapeutic complications and attention to quality of life, little is known about the causes of mortality in this population. In addition to the laryngeal malignancy itself, acute and late or chronic treatment-associated causes, second primary cancers, intercurrent disease and psychosocial factors are all responsible for patient morbidity and mortality. We examine the current literature related to the causes of death in patients with laryngeal cancer, in the hope of guiding future interventions to improve the longevity and quality of life of individuals with this cancer.
PubMed ID: 23591796
Article Size: <1 MB