Small round blue cell tumors of the sinonasal tract: a differential diagnosis approach.

Thompson LD.
Mod Pathol. 2017 Jan;30(s1):S1-S26. doi: 10.1038/modpathol.2016.119.
One of the most challenging diagnostic categories within tumors of the sinonasal tract is the small round blue cell tumors. Biopsies are usually small and limited, resulting in considerable diagnostic difficulty for practicing surgical pathologists. These tumors share several overlapping histologic and immunophenotypic findings while also showing considerable variation within and between cases. Specific tumor site of origin, imaging findings, and clinical findings must be combined with the histology and pertinent ancillary studies if the correct diagnosis is to be reached. Discrimination between neoplasms is critical as there are significant differences in therapy and overall outcome. It is important to have a well developed differential diagnosis for this category of tumors, where each of the diagnoses is considered, evaluated, and either confirmed or excluded from further consideration. In an undifferentiated tumor, showing a small round blue cell morphology, using the mnemonic ‘MR SLEEP’ helps to highlight tumors to consider: melanoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (including NUT carcinoma), small cell osteosarcoma, lymphoma, esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma), Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, pituitary adenoma, and plasmacytoma. A panel of pertinent immunohistochemistry studies, histochemistries and/or molecular tests should aid in reaching a diagnosis, especially when taking the pattern and intensity of reactions into consideration.
PubMed ID: 28060373
Article Size: 4 MB

Sinonasal Tract Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic and Immunophenotypic Study of 19 Cases Combined with a Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

Wolfish EB, Nelson BL, Thompson LD.
Head Neck Pathol. 2012 Jun;6(2):191-207.
Primary sinonasal tract mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) are uncommon tumors that are frequently misclassified, resulting in inappropriate clinical management. The design of this study is retrospective. Nineteen cases of MEC included 10 females and 9 males, aged 15-75 years (mean, 52.7 years); males, on average were younger by a decade than females (47.2 vs. 57.7 years). Patients presented most frequently with a mass, obstructive symptoms, pain, and/or epistaxis present for a mean of 12.6 months. The majority of tumors involved the nasal cavity alone (n = 10), maxillary sinus alone (n = 6), or a combination of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (n = 3) with a mean size of 2.4 cm. Most patients presented at a low clinical stage (n = 15, Stage I & II), with only 4 patients presenting with Stage III disease. Histologically, the tumors were often invasive (bone or perineural invasion), with invasion into minor mucoserous glands. Surface involvement was common. The neoplastic cells were composed of a combination of squamoid cells, intermediate cells, and mucocytes. Cystic spaces were occasionally large, but the majoritywere focal to small. Pleomorphism was generally low grade. Necrosis (n = 5) and atypical mitotic figures (n = 6) were seen infrequently. Over half of the tumors were classified as low grade (n = 11), with intermediate (n = 4) and high grade (n = 4) comprising the remainder. Mucicarmine was positive in all cases tested. Immunohistochemical studies showed positive reactions for keratin, CK5/6, p63, CK7, EMA, and CEA in all cases tested, while bcl-2 and CD117 were rarely positive. GFAP, MSA, TTF-1, and S100 protein were non-reactive. p53 and Ki-67 were reactive to a variable degree. MEC need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of a number of sinonasal lesions, particularly adenocarcinoma and necrotizing sialometaplasia. The patients were separated into stage I (n = 9), stage II (n = 6), and stage III (n = 4), without any patients in stage IV at presentation. Surgery occasionally accompanied by radiation therapy (n = 2) was generally employed. Six patients developed a recurrence, with 5 patients dying with disease (mean, 2.4 years), while 14 patients are either alive (n = 9) or had died (n = 5) of unrelated causes (mean, 14.6 years). MEC probably arises from the minor mucoserous glands of the upper aerodigestive tract, usually presenting in patients in middle age with a mass. Most patients present with low stage disease (stage I and II), although invasive growth is common. Recurrences develop in about a third of patients, who experience a shorter survival (mean, 6.5 years). The following parameters, when present, suggest an increased incidence of recurrence or dying with disease: size ?4.0 cm (P = 0.034), high mitotic count (P = 0.041), atypical mitoses (P = 0.007), mixed anatomic site (P = 0.032), development of recurrence (P = 0.041), high tumor grade (P = 0.007), and higher stage disease (P = 0.027).
PubMed ID: 22183767
Article Size: 1.2 MB

Nuclear expression and gain-of-function β-catenin mutation in glomangiopericytoma (sinonasal-type hemangiopericytoma): insight into pathogenesis and a diagnostic marker.

Lasota J, Felisiak-Golabek A, Aly FZ, Wang ZF, Thompson LD, Miettinen M.
Mod Pathol. 2015 May;28(5):715-20.
Glomangiopericytoma (sinonasal-type hemangiopericytoma) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm with myoid phenotype (smooth muscle actin-positive), which distinguishes this tumor from soft tissue hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor. Molecular genetic changes underlying the pathogenesis of glomangiopericytoma are not known. In this study, 13 well-characterized glomangiopericytomas were immunohistochemically evaluated for β-catenin expression. All analyzed tumors showed strong expression and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. Following this observation, β-catenin glycogen serine kinase-3 beta phosphorylation region, encoded by exon 3, was PCR amplified in all cases and evaluated for mutations using Sanger sequencing. Heterozygous mutations were identified in 12 of 13 tumors. All mutations consisted of single-nucleotide substitutions: three in codon 32 (c.94G>C (n=2) and c.95A>T), four in codon 33 (two each c.98C>G and c.98C>T), two in codon 37 (c.109T>G), one in codon 41 (c.121A>G), and two in codon 45 (c.133T>C). At the protein level, these substitutions would lead to p.D32H, p.D32V, p.S33C, p.S33F, p.S37A, p.T41A, and p.S45L mutations, respectively. Previously, similar mutations have been reported in different types of cancers and shown to trigger activation of β-catenin signaling. All analyzed glomangiopericytomas showed prominent nuclear expression of cyclin D1, as previously shown for tumors with nuclear expression of β-catenin as a sign of oncogenic activation. These results demonstrate that mutational activation of β-catenin and associated cyclin D1 overexpression may be central events in the pathogenesis of glomangiopericytoma. In additon, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a diagnostic marker for glomangiopericytoma.
PubMed ID: 25431235
Article Size: <1 MB

Sinonasal-type hemangiopericytoma: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic analysis of 104 cases showing perivascular myoid differentiation.

Thompson LD, Miettinen M, Wenig BM.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2003 Jun;27(6):737-49.
Sinonasal-type hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon upper aerodigestive tract tumor of uncertain cellular differentiation. We report 104 cases of sinonasal-type hemangiopericytoma diagnosed between 1970 and 1995 from the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. There were 57 females and 47 males ranging in age from 5 to 86 years (mean 62.6 years). The most common clinical presentation was airway obstruction (n = 57) and/or epistaxis (n = 54), with symptoms averaging 10 months in duration. The tumors involved the nasal cavity alone (n = 47) or also a paranasal sinus (n = 26), were polypoid, and measured an average of 3.1 cm. Histologically, the tumors were submucosal and unencapsulated and showed a diffuse growth with fascicular (n = 37) to solid (n = 50) to focally whorled (n = 7) patterns. The tumor cells were uniform in appearance with minimal pleomorphism and had spindle-shaped (n = 82) to round/oval (n = 18) nuclei with vesicular to hyperchromatic chromatin and eosinophilic to amphophilic to clear-appearing cytoplasm with indistinct cell borders. Multinucleated (tumor) giant cells were identified in a minority of cases (n = 5). Mitotic figures were inconspicuous and necrosis was absent. The tumors were richly vascularized, including staghorn-appearing vessels that characteristically had prominent perivascular hyalinization (n = 92). An associated inflammatory cell infiltrate that included mast cells and eosinophils was noted in the majority of cases (n = 87). The immunohistochemical profile included reactivity with vimentin (98%), smooth muscle actin (92%), muscle specific actin (77%), factor XIIIa (78%), and laminin (52%). Surgery was the treatment of choice for all of the patients; adjunctive radiotherapy was given to four patients. Recurrences developed in 18 patients within 1-12 years from diagnosis. Ninety-seven patients were either alive (n = 51, mean 16.5 years) or dead (n = 46, mean 9.6 years) but free of disease. Four patients had disease at the last follow-up: three died with disease (mean 3.6 years) and one patient is alive with disease (28.3 years). Recurrent tumor (17.8%) can be managed by additional surgery. The majority of sinonasal-type hemangiopericytomas behave in a benign manner with excellent long-term prognosis (88% raw 5-year survival) following surgery alone. Sinonasal-type hemangiopericytomas have a characteristic light microscopic appearance with an immunophenotypic profile resembling that of glomus tumors.
PubMed ID: 12766577
Article Size: 2 MB

Olfactory neuroblastoma.

Thompson LD.
Head Neck Pathol. 2009 Sep;3(3):252-9.
Few neoplasms are unique to the sinonasal tract, but sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and olfactory neuroblastoma are malignant tumors which require unique management. Due to the rarity of these tumors, practicing pathologists are not always aware of their distinctive clinical, radiographic, histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features. These cases are frequently submitted for consultation, further suggesting the diagnostic difficulties inherent to these tumors. Specifically, olfactory neuroblastoma is a neoplasm that can histologically mimic many tumors within the sinonasal tract, making recognition of this tumor important, as the management frequently requires a bicranial-facial surgical approach, a trephination procedure which can be quite technically difficult and challenging to achieve a good result. The management is therefore quite unique in comparison to other sinonasal tract malignancies, setting it apart diagnostically and managerially from other lesions.
PubMed ID: 20596981
Article Size: <1 MB

Olfactory neuroblastoma.

Thompson L.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2006 Sep;85(9):569-70.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma) is an uncommon malignant neuroectodermal nasal tumor that accounts for approximately 5% of all malignant neoplasms. Olfactory neuroblastomas are thought to arise from the specialized sensory neuroepithelial (neuroectodermal) olfactory cells that are normally found in the upper part of the nasal cavity, usually including the cribriform plate of the ethmoid sinus. These tumors affect both sexes equally. A bimodal age distribution (the 2nd and 6th decades of life) has been documented, although patients of all ages can be affected. Patients present with nonspecific symptoms of nasal obstruction (70% of cases) and epistaxis (50%); less common symptoms include headache, pain, visual disturbances, and anosmia (<5%). Owing to the nonspecific nature of the presenting symptoms, patients often have a long history prior to diagnosis.
PubMed ID: 17044420
Article Size: <1 MB

Sinonasal tract and nasopharyngeal melanomas: a clinicopathologic study of 115 cases with a proposed staging system.

Thompson LD, Wieneke JA, Miettinen M.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2003 May;27(5):594-611.
Primary sinonasal tract mucosal malignant melanomas are uncommon tumors that are frequently misclassified, resulting in inappropriate clinical management. A total of 115 cases of sinonasal tract mucosal malignant melanoma included 59 females and 56 males, 13-93 years of age (mean 64.3 years). Patients presented most frequently with epistaxis (n = 52), mass (n = 42), and/or nasal obstruction (n = 34) present for a mean of 8.2 months. The majority of tumors involved the nasal cavity (n = 34), septum alone, or a combination of the nasal cavity and sinuses (n = 39) with a mean size of 2.4 cm. Histologically, the tumors were composed of a variety of cell types (epithelioid, spindled, undifferentiated), frequently arranged in a peritheliomatous distribution (n = 39). Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of sinonasal tract mucosal malignant melanomas with positive reactions for S-100 protein, tyrosinase, HMB-45, melan A, and microphthalmia transcription factor. Sinonasal tract mucosal malignant melanomas need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of most sinonasal malignancies, particularly carcinoma, lymphoma, sarcoma, and olfactory neuroblastoma. Surgery accompanied by radiation and/or chemotherapy was generally used. The majority of patients developed a recurrence (n = 79), with 75 patients dying with disseminated disease (mean 2.3 years), whereas 40 patients are either alive or had died of unrelated causes (mean 13.9 years). A TNM-type classification separated by anatomic site of involvement and metastatic disease is proposed to predict biologic behavior.
PubMed ID: 12717245
Article Size: 2 MB

Sinonasal Tract and Nasopharyngeal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic and Immunophenotypic Study of 86 Cases.

Thompson LD, Penner C, Ho NJ, Foss RD, Miettinen M, Wieneke JA, Moskaluk CA, Stelow EB.
Head Neck Pathol. 2014 Mar;8(1):88-109.
Primary sinonasal tract and nasopharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinomas (STACC) are uncommon tumors that are frequently misclassified, resulting in inappropriate clinical management. Eighty-six cases of STACC included 45 females and 41 males, aged 12-91 years (mean 54.4 years). Patients presented most frequently with obstructive symptoms (n = 54), followed by epistaxis (n = 23), auditory symptoms (n = 12), nerve symptoms (n = 11), nasal discharge (n = 11), and/or visual symptoms (n = 10), present for a mean of 18.2 months. The tumors involved the nasal cavity alone (n = 25), nasopharynx alone (n = 13), maxillary sinus alone (n = 4), or a combination of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (n = 44), with a mean size of 3.7 cm. Patients presented equally between low and high stage disease: stage I and II (n = 42) or stage III and IV (n = 44) disease. Histologically, the tumors were invasive (bone: n = 66; neural: n = 47; lymphovascular: n = 33), composed of a variety of growth patterns, including cribriform (n = 33), tubular (n = 16), and solid (n = 9), although frequently a combination of these patterns was seen within a single tumor. Pleomorphism was mild with an intermediate N:C ratio in cells containing hyperchromatic nuclei. Reduplicated basement membrane and glycosaminoglycan material was commonly seen. Necrosis (n = 16) and atypical mitotic figures (n = 11) were infrequently present. Pleomorphic adenoma was present in 9 cases; de-differentiation was seen in two patients. Immunohistochemical studies showed positive reactions for pan-cytokeratin, CK7, CK5/6, CAM5.2, and EMA, with myoepithelial reactivity with SMA, p63, calponin, S100 protein and SMMHC. CD117, CEA, GFAP and p16 were variably present. CK20 and HR HPV were negative. STACC needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of most sinonasal malignancies, particularly poorly differentiated carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma and pleomorphic adenoma. Surgery (n = 82), often accompanied by radiation therapy (n = 36), was generally employed. A majority of patients developed a recurrence (n = 52) 2-144 months after initial presentation. Overall mean follow-up was 19.4 years (range 0.4-37.5 years): 46 patients died with disease (mean 6.4 years); 5 were alive with disease (mean 5.4 years), and 35 patients were either alive or had died of unrelated causes (mean 16.3 years). ACC of the SNT is uncommon. Recurrences are common. The following parameters, when present, suggest an increased incidence of either recurrence or dying with disease: mixed site of involvement, high stage disease (stage IV), skull base involvement, tumor recurrence, a solid histology, perineural invasion, bone invasion, and lymphovascular invasion.
PubMed ID: 24037641
Article Size: 1.5 MB

The sinonasal tract: Another potential ‘hot spot’ for carcinomas with transcriptionally-active human papillomavirus.

Lewis JS Jr, Westra WH, Thompson LD, Barnes L, Cardesa A, Hunt JL, Williams MD, Slootweg PJ, Triantafyllou A, Woolgar JA, Devaney KO, Rinaldo A, Ferlito A.
Head Neck Pathol. 2014 Sep;8(3):241-249.
While high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is well established as causative and clinically important for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx, its role in non-oropharyngeal head and neck SCC is much less clearly elucidated. In the sinonasal region, in particular, although it is a relatively uncommon site for SCC, as many as 20 % of SCC harbor transcriptionally-active high risk HPV. These tumors almost always have a nonkeratinizing morphology and may have a better prognosis. In addition, specific variants of SCC as well as other rare carcinoma types, when arising in the sinonasal tract, can harbor transcriptionally-active HPV. This article reviews the current literature on HPV in sinonasal carcinomas, attempts to more clearly demonstrate what tumors have it and how this relates to possible precursor lesions like inverted papilloma, and discusses the possible clinical ramifications of the presence of the virus.
PubMed ID: 24338611
Article Size: <1 MB

Sinonasal Tract Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Ex-Pleomorphic Adenoma: A Clinicopathologic and Immunophenotypic Study of 9 Cases Combined with a Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

Toluie S, Thompson LD.
Head Neck Pathol. 2012 Dec;6(4):409-21.
Primary sinonasal tract carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is very uncommon, with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) CEPA exceptional. These tumors are often misclassified. This is a retrospective study. Nine cases of ACC CEPA included 7 females and 2 males, aged 39-64 years (mean, 51.1 years). Patients presented most frequently with obstructive symptoms (n = 5), epistaxis (n = 3), nerve changes or pain (n = 3), present for a mean of 25 months (men: 9.5 versus women: 29.4 months; p = 0.264). The tumors involved the nasal cavity alone (n = 5), nasopharynx (n = 2), or a combination of locations (n = 2) with a mean size of 2.9 cm (females: 3.3; males: 1.7; p = 0.064). Most patients presented at a low clinical stage (n = 7, stage I), with one patient each in stage II and IV, respectively. Histologically, the tumors showed foci of PA associated with areas of ACC. Tumors showed invasion (lymph-vascular: n = 4; perineural: n = 6; bone: n = 6). The neoplastic cells were arranged in tubules, cribriform and solid patterns, with peg-shaped cells arranged around reduplicated basement membrane and glycosaminoglycan material. Mitoses ranged from 0 to 33, with a mean of 8.7 mitoses/10 HPFs. Necrosis (n = 2) and atypical mitotic figures (n = 1) were seen infrequently. Immunohistochemical studies showed positive reactions for cytokeratin, CK5/6, p63, CK7, EMA, SMA, calponin, S100 protein and CD117, several highlighting luminal versus basal cells components. GFAP, CK20 and MSA were non-reactive. p53 and Ki-67 were reactive to a variable degree. Surgery (n = 8), accompanied by radiation therapy (n = 5) was generally employed. Five patients developed a recurrence, all of whom died with disease (mean, 8.4 years), while 4 patients are either alive (n = 2) or had died (n = 2) without evidence of disease (mean, 15.9 years). In summary, ACC CEPA probably arises from the minor mucoserous glands of the upper aerodigestive tract, usually presenting in patients in middle age with obstructive symptoms in a nasal cavity based tumor. Most patients present with low stage disease (stage I and II), although invasive growth is common. Recurrences develop in about a 55 % of patients, who experience a shorter survival (mean, 8.4 years) than patients without recurrences (mean, 15.9 years). The following parameters, when present, suggest an increased incidence of recurrence or dying with disease: bone invasion, lymph-vascular invasion, and perineural invasion.
PubMed ID: 22941242
Article Size: 2.5 MB

Carcinoma Ex-Schneiderian Papilloma (Malignant Transformation): A Clinicopathologic and Immunophenotypic Study of 20 Cases Combined with a Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

Nudell J, Chiosea S, Thompson LD.
Head Neck Pathol. 2014 Sep;8(3):269-286.
Schneiderian papilloma (SP) are uncommon tumors with malignant transformation even less common. The histologic criteria to define malignant transformation are not well developed nor is the immunohistochemical profile reported in a large series of carcinomas. 20 cases of malignant transformation of SP included 7 females and 13 males, aged 38-86 years (mean 60.7 years). Patients presented most frequently with a mass (n = 11) and obstructive symptoms (n = 7), present for 38.7 months (mean). Most patients had no previous history of SP (n = 13); metachronous carcinoma was identified in 7 patients an average of 34.4 months after the first diagnosis of SP, with 1-4 recurrences of SP. With a mean size of 4.1 cm, the majority of tumors involved a combination of more than one anatomic site (n = 10), followed by the maxillary sinus only (n = 5) or nasal cavity only (n = 3). Histologically, 17 were inverted and 3 exophytic type SP. There were 17 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 1 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, comprising from 10 to 95 % of the tumor volume. Malignant histologic features included atypical mitoses, necrosis, bone invasion, lymphovascular invasion, decreased transmigrating neutrophils, paradoxical maturation, dyskeratosis and/or perineural invasion (n = 3). Patients tended to present with advanced stage (n = 14, Stage III and IV). Immunohistochemical studies showed positive reactions in the malignancies for CK5/6 (86 %), p63 (86 %), CK7 (luminal, 50 %), p53 (83 %), and p16 (25 %). In situ hybridization detected human papillomavirus in 26 %. Surgery was often accompanied by radiation therapy (n = 13), with a mean of 2.4 years of follow-up. Five patients developed a recurrence between 0.8 and 3.3 years. Carcinomas ex-SP are less common and are associated with better outcome than previously reported. Patients tend to present with a synchronous carcinoma, developing in an inverted type SP, with squamous cell carcinoma the most common malignancy. Development of metachronous carcinomas ex-SP was always preceded by SP recurrence in this series.
PubMed ID: 24519376
Article Size: 1.7 MB

Sinonasal Tract Neurofibroma: A Clinicopathologic Series of 12 Cases with a Review of the Literature

Azani AB, Bishop JA, Thompson LD.
Head and Neck Pathol. 2014 [Epub ahead of print]
Neurofibroma (NF), a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor, is very uncommon in the sinonasal tract, with only a few reported cases in the English literature. Cases within the files of the authors’ institutions confined to the sinonasal tract were compared to cases reported in the English literature (Medline 1966-2014). The 12 patients included 6 females and 6 males, aged 26-75 years (mean 46.2 years). The patients usually presented clinically with a mass lesion (n = 11), obstruction (n = 4) or pain (n = 3), with an average symptom duration of 42.9 months. Two patients had neurofibromatosis (NF1). Tumors involved the nasal cavity alone (n = 8), maxillary sinus alone (n = 2), or mixed sites (n = 2), with a range of 0.4-4.1 cm (mean 2.2 cm). The tumors were circumscribed, composed of spindled to wavy cells with curvilinear nuclei set in a background of collagenized stroma and mast cells. Nuclear palisading and perivascular hyalinization were not seen. Mitoses were scant. Pleomorphism, necrosis and increased cellularity were absent. By immunohistochemistry, the lesional cells were S100 protein, SOX10 and NFP positive, while CD34 highlighted the perineurium. INI1 was intact, with strong nuclear expression in all cases. All patients had surgical excision without recurrence (mean follow-up 8.6 years). The principle differential diagnoses include schwannoma, perineurioma, fibromatosis, and solitary fibrous tumor. NF of the sinonasal tract occurs in middleaged patients without a gender predilection, usually with non-specific symptoms present for a long duration. Tumors are relatively large (mean 2.2), and usually affect one site only. Surgery is curative, with only 16.7 % NF1 associated. S100 protein, SOX10 and NFP highlight the Schwann cells, with CD34 highlighting the perineural fibroblasts.
PubMed ID: 25503638
Article Size: 3.7 MB

Intracranial mucocele formation in the context of longstanding chronic rhinosinusitis: A clinicopathologic series and literature review.

Lee JT, Brunworth J, Garg R, Shibuya T, Keschner DB, Vanefsky M, Lin T, Choi S, Stea R3 Thompson LD.
Allergy Rhinol (Providence). 2013 Fall;4(3):e166-75.
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) can lead to serious long-term adverse sequelae, particularly if left untreated. The aim of this study was to describe a series of intracranial mucoceles (ICMs) that arose in the context of longstanding CRS combined with a review of the pertinent literature. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who developed ICMs in association with CRS between 2003 and 2012. The clinical presentation, radiographic features, surgical approach, intraoperative findings, and patient outcome were examined in the context of a literature review. Sixty-five cases of mucoceles were identified in patients with a history of CRS, of which seven (10.8%) were intracranial. Five patients were men and two were women with a mean age of 42.1 years. Headache, facial pressure, retro-orbital pain, and visual disturbances were the most common presenting symptoms. Five of the seven had previously undergone sinonasal surgery. Imaging studies showed ICMs involving the anterior cranial fossa, two of which were bilateral. Latency between onset of CRS and ICM detection ranged from 3 to 19 years (mean, 9.4 years). All patients underwent endoscopic transnasal drainage with three also requiring a concurrent, open neurosurgical procedure to access the intracranial component. There were no postoperative complications, and no recurrences were observed after a mean follow-up of 2.7 years. ICMs presenting as delayed complications of CRS are uncommon and constitute a surgical challenge. Open, external skull base approaches used in conjunction with transnasal endoscopic drainage procedures may be necessary to achieve successful management of this rare condition.
PubMed ID: 24498523
Article Size: 2.5 MB

Update on Select Benign Mesenchymal and Meningothelial Sinonasal Tract Lesions

Thompson LD, Fanburg-Smith JC.
Head Neck Pathol. 2016 Mar;10(1):95-108.
Several benign and malignant mesenchymal and meningothelial lesions may preferentially affect or extend into the sinonasal tract. Glomangiopericytoma (GPC, formerly sinonasal-type hemangiopericytoma) is a specific tumor with a predilection to the sinonasal tract. Sinonasal tract polyps with stromal atypia (antrochoanal polyp) demonstrate unique histologic findings in the sinonasal tract. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) arises from specialized tissue in this location. Meningioma may develop as direct extension from its intracranial counterpart or as an ectopic tumor. Selected benign mesenchymal tumors may arise in the sinonasal tract and pose a unique differential diagnostic consideration, such as solitary fibrous tumor and GPC or lobular capillary hemangioma and JNA. Although benign and malignant vascular, fibrous, fatty, skeletal muscle, and nerve sheath tumors may occur in this location, this paper focuses on a highly select group of rare benign sinonasal tract tumors with their clinicopathological and molecular findings, and differential diagnosis.
PubMed ID: 26830398
Article Size: 4 MB

Rhabdomyoblastic Differentiation in Head and Neck Malignancies Other Than Rhabdomyosarcoma.

Bishop JA, Thompson LD, Cardesa A, Barnes L, Lewis JS Jr, Triantafyllou A, Hellquist H, Stenman G, Hunt JL, Williams MD, Slootweg PJ, Devaney KO, Gnepp DR, Wenig BM, Rinaldo A, Ferlito A.
Head Neck Pathol. 2015 Dec;9(4):507-18.
Rhabdomyosarcoma is a relatively common soft tissue sarcoma that frequently affects children and adolescents and may involve the head and neck. Rhabdomyosarcoma is defined by skeletal muscle differentiation which can be suggested by routine histology and confirmed by immunohistochemistry for the skeletal muscle-specific markers myogenin or myoD1. At the same time, it must be remembered that when it comes to head and neck malignancies, skeletal muscle differentiation is not limited to rhabdomyosarcoma. A lack of awareness of this phenomenon could lead to misdiagnosis and, subsequently, inappropriate therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on malignant neoplasms of the head and neck other than rhabdomyosarcoma that may exhibit rhabdomyoblastic differentiation, with an emphasis on strategies to resolve the diagnostic dilemmas these tumors may present. Axiomatically, no primary central nervous system tumors will be discussed.
PubMed ID: 25757816
Article Size: 3.8 MB

Sinonasal tumors: a clinicopathologic update of selected tumors.

Slootweg PJ, Ferlito A, Cardesa A, Thompson LD, Hunt JL, Strojan P, Takes RP, Triantafyllou A, Woolgar JA, Rinaldo A, Devaney KO, Barnes L.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013 Jan;270(1):5-20.
The sinonasal cavities show a wide variety of neoplasms of epithelial, mesenchymal, neural/neuroectodermal or hematopoietic origin. The differential diagnosis for these tumors may be difficult due to overlapping morphologies, variable patterns in ancillary studies, and potentially confusing terminology. In this report, an updated review of the spectrum of neoplasia is provided, using the World Health Organization 2005 classification as a guide. Classic tumors that are generally limited to the sinonasal tract are described and new information regarding molecular pathogenesis is reviewed. Also new entities that have the sinonasal tract as a site of predilection, such as sinonasal renal cell-like adenocarcinoma and NUT midline carcinoma are highlighted.
PubMed ID: 22610012
Article Size: 2.2 MB

Sinonasal carcinomas.

Thompson LDR.
Curr Diag Pathol 2006 12, 40–53.
Malignant neoplasms of the sinonasal tract encompass a wide variety of epithelial, lymphoid and mesenchymal tumours. The separation and classification of epithelial or neuroepithelial tumours is sometimes challenging, especially when treatment and prognosis are different. Squamous cell carcinoma, keratinizing or non-keratinizing and, usually, the poorly differentiated type need to be separated from sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma and olfactory neuroblastoma. Whereas melanoma and lymphoma are also included in the broad differential, along with primitive neuroectodermal tumours and rhabdomyosarcomas, the focus of this commentary will be to present the major clinical, radiographical, histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular features which allow for separation of the principle mucosal epithelial neoplasms of the sinonasal tract.
PubMed ID: n/a
Article Size: 2 MB

Squamous cell carcinoma variants of the head and neck.

Thompson LDR.
Curr Diag Pathol 2003 9, 384–396.
Variants of squamous cellcarcinoma (SCC) frequently arise within the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, accounting for up to15% of SCCs in these areas. The most common variants include verrucous, exophytic or papillary, spindle-cell (sarcomatoid), basaloid and adenosquamous carcinoma. Each of these variants has a unique histomorphologic appearance, which raises a number of different differential diagnostic considerations, with the attendant clinically relevant management decision.
Verrucous squamous cell carcinoma has a broad border of pushing infiltration of a non-dysplastic squamous epithelium, essentially devoid of mitotic figures, displaying hyperkeratosis on elongated rete pegs. Papillary and exophytic SCC have a papillary or exophytic architecture, but have malignant cytologic features within the epithelium. Spindle-cell (sarcomatoid) carcinoma is an SCC blended with a spindle-cell morphology, frequently mimicking other mesenchymal tumours. Epithelial markers are often negative. Basaloid SCC is a high-grade SCC variant with small cells arranged in a palisaded architecture, with hyperchromatic nuclei and only focal areas of squamous differentiation. A denosquamous carcinoma is a rare variant, which is a composite of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, often with areas of transition.The cytomorphologic features are described in detail in an attempt to allow the general surgical pathologist to separate these variants of SCC in order to achieve appropriate clinical management.
PubMed ID: n/a
Article Size: 3 MB

Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal tract.

Wieneke JA, Thompson LD, Wenig BM.
Cancer. 1999 Feb 15;85(4):841-54.
BACKGROUND: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a high grade, aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma with a predilection for the larynx, hypopharynx, tonsils, and base of the tongue. To the authors’ knowledge, BSCC originating in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses rarely has been reported.
METHODS: Fourteen cases of BSCC involving the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses were identified in the files of the Otolaryngic-Head and Neck Pathology Tumor Registry of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology from 1975-1997. Clinical records and follow-up were available in all cases. Paraffin blocks were available for histochemical and immunohistochemical studies in all cases.
RESULTS: There were 7 females and 7 males, ages 32-86 years (median, 66.5 years; mean, 62 years). The patients presented primarily with a mass lesion and unilateral nasal obstruction. In nine patients the tumor was confined to the nasal cavity. In three patients the tumor involved the sinuses alone and in two patients the tumor involved the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Histologically, the tumors were widely invasive with a variety of growth patterns, including lobular, solid, trabecular, cribriform, and fascicular. The neoplastic infiltrate included predominantly pleomorphic, basaloid-appearing cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous to prominent nucleoli, and a variable amount of eosinophilic to clear-appearing cytoplasm. Mitotic figures, including atypical forms, were readily apparent as was necrosis (individual cell and comedo-type). Foci of squamous differentiation were limited in extent but were found in all cases and included squamous whorls, individual cell keratinization, and intercellular bridges. Intraepithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive squamous carcinoma was present in all cases. Other histologic features included intercellular stromal hyalinization and peripheral nuclear palisading. In two cases, neural-type rosettes were found. Immunoreactivity for a variety of epithelial markers including cytokeratin (AE1/AE3/LP34), CAM 5.2, 34betaE12, CK7, and epithelial membrane antigen was present in all cases. Variable reactivity was present with vimentin, actins (smooth muscle and muscle specific), neuron specific enolase, S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, CK20, carcinoembryonic antigen, Leu7, and Ewing’s marker. Chromogranin, synaptophysin, neurofibrillary protein, leukocyte common antigen, HMB-45, desmin, and Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein were absent. Surgical resection was the treatment of choice. Eight patients had recurrent or persistent tumor and metastatic disease occurred in five patients. At last follow-up, 7 patients (50%) had died of disease with a median survival of 12 months from the time of diagnosis and 3 patients were alive with disease over periods ranging from 8 months-5 years. Of the 4 remaining patients, 2 were alive without disease at 1 month and 5 years, respectively, 1 patient was lost to follow-up with no evidence of tumor at 3 years, and 1 patient had died of unrelated causes with no evidence of disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Sinonasal BSCC is a histologically distinct variant of squamous cell carcinoma with pathologic features and aggressive biologic behavior similar to BSCC localized to more common mucosal sites of the upper aerodigestive tract.
PubMed ID: 10091761
Article Size: 2 MB

Extracranial sinonasal tract meningiomas: a clinicopathologic study of 30 cases with a review of the literature.

Thompson LD, Gyure KA.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2000 May;24(5):640-50.
Extracranial meningiomas of the sinonasal tract are rare tumors. These tumors are frequently misclassified, resulting in inappropriate clinical management. To date, there has been no comprehensive study to evaluate the clinicopathologic aspects of meningi
PubMed ID: 10800982
Article Size: 2 MB

Sinonasal respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartomas: Series of 51 cases and literature review.

Lee JT, Garg R, Brunworth J, Keschner DB, Thompson LD.
Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2013 Jul;27(4):322-8.
BACKGROUND: Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartomas (REAHs) are rare, benign glandular proliferations of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx. This study aimed to expand our understanding of this entity by presenting a series of REAHs combined with a review of the pertinent literature.
METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all patients with a diagnosis of REAH from 2002 to 2011. Data were collected with respect to age, gender, clinical presentation, imaging, histopathology, treatment, and outcome. Because olfactory cleft expansion by imaging evaluation has been reported to suggest REAH, maximum olfactory cleft (MOCs) widths were also measured.
RESULTS: Fifty-one cases of REAH included 37 male (72.5%) and 14 female subjects (27.5%) with a mean age of 58.4 years. Headache, nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, and hyposmia were the most common presenting symptoms. Although 35(68.6%) were associated with concurrent inflammatory pathology, 16 (31.4%) presented as isolated lesions of the nasal cavity. Enlargement of MOCs was evident on computed tomography, with mean MOCs of 8.64 and 9.4 mm, in the coronal/axial planes, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between MOCs of isolated (7.96 mm) versus MOCs of associated (9.63 mm) lesions (p = 0.25). Forty-nine were treated with endoscopic resection without evidence of recurrence after a mean follow-up of 27.2 months.
CONCLUSION: REAHs are rare sinonasal lesions that may appear as localized, isolated masses or more diffuse when in conjunction with other inflammatory processes. Irrespective of clinical presentation, endoscopic removal appears to be curative. Differentiation from more aggressive lesions is paramount to avoid unnecessarily radical surgery for an otherwise benign process.
PubMed ID: 23883815
Article Size: MB

Sinonasal Tract Angiosarcoma: A Clinicopathologic and Immunophenotypic Study of 10 Cases with a Review of the Literature.

Nelson BL, Thompson LDR.
Head Neck Pathol. 2007 Sep;1(1):1-12.
BACKGROUND: Primary sinonasal tract angiosarcoma are rare tumors that are frequently misclassified, resulting in inappropriate clinical management. There are only a few reported cases in the English literature.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with sinonasal tract angiosarcoma were retrospectively retrieved from the Otorhinolaryngic Registry of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
RESULTS: Six males and four females, aged 13 to 81 years (mean, 46.7 years), presented with epistaxis and bloody discharge. Females were on average younger than their male counterparts (37.8 vs. 52.7 years, respectively). The tumors involved the nasal cavity alone (n = 8) or the maxillary sinus (n = 2), with a mean size of 4.3 cm; the average size was different between the genders: males: 2.8 cm; females: 6.4 cm. Histologically, all tumors had anastomosing vascular channels lined by remarkably atypical endothelial cells protruding into the lumen, neolumen formation, frequent atypical mitotic figures, necrosis, and hemorrhage. All cases tested (n = 6) demonstrated immunoreactivity with antibodies to Factor VIII-RA, CD34, CD31, and smooth muscle actin, while non-reactive with keratin and S-100 protein. The principle differential diagnosis includes granulation tissue, lobular capillary hemangioma (pyogenic granuloma), and Kaposi’s sarcoma. All patients had surgery followed by post-operative radiation (n = 4 patients). Follow-up was available in all patients: Six patients died with disease (mean, 28.8 months); two patients had died without evidence of disease (mean, 267 months); and two are alive with no evidence of disease at last follow-up (mean, 254 months).
CONCLUSIONS: Sinonasal tract angiosarcoma is a rare tumor, frequently presenting in middle-aged patients as a large mass usually involving the nasal cavity with characteristic histomorphologic and immunophenotypic features. Sinonasal tract angiosarcoma will often have a poor prognosis making appropriate separation from other conditions important.
PubMed ID: 20614274
Article Size: <1 MB

Primary ameloblastoma of the sinonasal tract: a clinicopathologic study of 24 cases.

Schafer DR, Thompson LD, Smith BC, Wenig BM.
Cancer. 1998 Feb 15;82(4):667-74.
BACKGROUND: Ameloblastomas are locally aggressive jaw tumors with a high propensity for recurrence and are believed to arise from the remnants of odontogenic epithelium. Extragnathic ameloblastomas are unusual and primary sinonasal tract origin is extraordinarily uncommon.
METHODS: Twenty-four cases of ameloblastoma confined to the sinonasal tract were retrieved from the Otorhinolaryngic-Head & Neck Pathology and Oral-Maxillofacial Pathology Tumor Registries of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology between 1956 and 1996.
RESULTS: The patients included 5 females and 19 males with an age range of 43-81 years, with a mean age at presentation of 59.7 years. The patients presented with an enlarging mass in the maxillary sinus or nasal cavity (n = 24), sinusitis (n = 9), or epistaxis (n = 8). Unilateral opacification of the maxillary sinus (n = 12) was the most common radiographic finding. Histologically, the tumors exhibited the characteristic features of ameloblastoma, including peripherally palisaded columnar cells with reverse polarity. The majority of the tumors showed a plexiform growth pattern. Fifteen tumors demonstrated surface epithelial derivation. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice, ranging from conservative surgery (polypectomy) to more aggressive surgery (radical maxillectomy). Five patients experienced at least 1 recurrence, usually within 1 year of initial surgery. With follow-up intervals of up to 44 years (mean, 9.5 years), all 24 patients were alive without evidence of disease or had died of unrelated causes, without evidence of disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Primary ameloblastoma of the sinonasal tract is rare. In contrast to their gnathic counterparts, sinonasal tract tumors have a predilection for older age men. Therapy should be directed toward complete surgical resection to prevent local tumor recurrence.
PubMed ID: 9477098
Article Size: 1 MB

Primary chondrosarcoma of the head and neck in pediatric patients: a clinicopathologic study of 14 cases with a review of the literature.

Gadwal SR, Fanburg-Smith JC, Gannon FH, Thompson LD.
Cancer. 2000 May 1;88(9):2181-8.
BACKGROUND: Primary chondrosarcoma of the head and neck in the pediatric age group is rare. The literature contains several single cases and small series; however, to the authors’ knowledge, there has been no previous comprehensive larger study to evaluate the clinicopathologic aspects of these tumors.
METHODS: Fourteen cases of chondrosarcoma of the head and neck from patients age 18 years or younger, diagnosed between 1970 and 1997, were retrieved from the Otorhinolaryngic-Head & Neck Tumor Registry of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. No secondary sarcomas (radiation-induced or arising in association with Maffucci syndrome or Ollier disease) were included. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic features were reviewed and patient follow-up obtained.
RESULTS: The patients included 6 girls and 8 boys ages 3-18 years (mean, 11.8 years). Patient symptoms (nasal stuffiness or discharge, sinusitis, headaches, or a mass lesion) were related to tumor location and were present for an average of 7.2 months. No genetic abnormalities were documented. The tumors most frequently involved the maxillary sinus (n=4), followed by the mandible (n=3), nasal cavity (n=2), and neck (n=2), with 1 each of the nasopharynx, orbit, and base of the skull. The tumors ranged in size from 2.0 to 15.0 cm (mean, 3.1 cm). All tumors were invasive and malignant as determined by radiology and/or histology. The tumors were Grade 1 (n=9), Grade 2 (n=1), or Grade 3 (mesenchymal, n=2; dedifferentiated n=2). All patients were treated by surgery, followed by radiation (n=5) and/or chemotherapy (n=2). Follow-up was available for 11 patients; all were alive (at a mean of 14.8 years), with only a single patient demonstrating evidence of residual/ recurrent tumor (at 16.6 years).
CONCLUSIONS: Primary head and neck chondrosarcoma in the pediatric population is typically low grade and occurs in the maxillary sinus or mandible. Despite the invasive and high grade nature of some of these tumors, there is an excellent long term prognosis for patients in this age group with tumors in these locations.
PubMed ID: 10813732
Article Size: <1 MB

Angioleiomyoma of the Sinonasal Tract: Analysis of 16 Cases and Review of the Literature

Agaimy A, Michal M, Thompson LD, Michal M
Head Neck Pathol. 2015 Dec;9(4):463-73.
Angioleiomyoma (ALM; synonyms: angiomyoma, vascular leiomyoma) is an uncommon benign tumor of skin and subcutaneous tissue. Most arise in the extremities (90 %). Head and neck ALMs are uncommon (~10 % of all ALMs) and those arising beneath the sinonasal tract mucosa are very rare (<1 %) with 38 cases reported so far. We herein analyzed 16 cases identified from our routine and consultation files. Patients included seven females and nine males aged 25-82 years (mean 58; median 62). Symptoms were intermittent nasal obstruction, sinusitis, recurrent epistaxis, and a slow-growing mass. Fifteen lesions originated within different regions of the nasal cavity and one lesion was detected incidentally in an ethmoid sinus sample. Size range was 6-25 mm (mean 11). Histologically, all lesions were well circumscribed but non-encapsulated and most (12/16) were of the compact solid type superficially mimicking conventional leiomyoma but contained numerous compressed muscular veins. The remainder were of venous (2) and cavernous (2) type. Variable amounts of mature fat were observed in four cases (25 %). Atypia, necrosis, and mitotic activity were absent. Immunohistochemistry showed consistent expression of smooth muscle actin (12/12), h-caldesmon (9/9), muscle-specific actin (4/4), variable expression of desmin (11/14) and CD56 (4/6), and absence of HMB45 expression (0/11). The covering mucosa was ulcerated in 6 cases and showed squamous metaplasia in one case. There were no recurrences after local excision. Submucosal sinonasal ALMs are rare benign tumors similar to their reported cutaneous counterparts with frequent adipocytic differentiation. They should be distinguished from renal-type angiomyolipoma. Simple excision is curative.
PubMed ID: 26047608
Article Size: 3 MB

Primary osteosarcoma of the head and neck in pediatric patients: a clinicopathologic study of 22 cases with a review of the literature.

Gadwal SR, Gannon FH, Fanburg-Smith JC, Becoskie EM, Thompson LD.
Cancer. 2001 Feb 1;91(3):598-605.
BACKGROUND: Primary osteosarcomas of the head and neck in the pediatric age group, not associated with previous irradiation or a known syndrome, are rare. The literature contains several single cases and small study series; however, to the authors’s knowledge, there has been no comprehensive large study to evaluate the clinicopathologic aspects of these tumors.
METHODS: Twenty-two cases of osteosarcomas of the head and neck in patients 18 years of age or younger, diagnosed between 1970 and 1997, were retrieved from the Otorhinolaryngic-Head & Neck Tumor Registry of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP). No secondary sarcomas (radiation-induced or those arising after chemotherapy) or those associated with known syndromes were included. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic features were reviewed, and patient follow-up was obtained.
RESULTS: The patients included 11 girls and 11 boys, 1-18 years of age (mean, 12.2 yrs). Patient symptoms related to tumor location were painless swelling, loss of teeth, headaches, or a mass lesion, present for an average of 5.9 months. No genetic abnormalities were documented. The tumors most frequently involved the mandible (n = 19), followed by the sphenoid sinus (n = 2) and the maxilla (n = 1). The tumors ranged in size from 1.1-10.0 cm (mean, 4.5 cm). All tumors were invasive and malignant by radiology and/or histology. The tumors were Grade 1 (n = 11), Grade 2 (n = 8), or Grade 3 (n = 3). All cases, except one chondroblastic osteosarcoma, were osteoblastic osteosarcomas. Thirteen patients underwent initial surgical resection with (n = 5) or without (n = 9) additional radiation and/or chemotherapy. The remaining 9 patients had an initial biopsy for diagnosis followed by surgery (n = 4) or surgery and radiation and/or chemotherapy (n = 5). Follow-up was available for 19 patients: 13 were alive at last follow-up with no evidence of disease (mean, 13.1 yrs); 1 was alive with disease (1.3 yrs); 3 had died without evidence of disease (mean, 23.2 yrs); and 2 had died of disease (mean, 7.8 yrs). The 3 patients with high-grade osteosarcoma were alive without disease (mean, 20.0 yrs).
CONCLUSIONS: Primary head and neck osteosarcomas in the pediatric population are typically low- to moderate-grade lesions in the mandible. Despite the invasive nature and high grade of a few of these tumors, there is an excellent overall long-term prognosis for patients in this age group with tumors in these locations.
PubMed ID: 11169944
Article Size: <1 MB

Sinonasal tract eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis. A report of three cases.

Thompson LD, Heffner DK.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2001 Feb;115(2):243-8.
Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare submucosal fibrosis without a well-developed differential diagnosis. Three cases of sinonasal tract EAF were identified in 2 women and 1 man, aged 49, 64, and 28 years, respectively. The patients experienced a nasal cavity mass, maxillary pain, or nasal obstructive symptoms of long duration. The process involved the nasal septum (n = 2), nasal cavity (n = 1), and/or the maxillary sinus (n = 1). There was no evidence for Wegener granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Kimura disease, granuloma faciale, or erythema elevatum diutinum. Histologically, the lesions demonstrated a characteristic perivascular ‘onion-skin’ fibrosis and a full spectrum of inflammatory cells, although eosinophils predominated. Necrosis and foreign body-type giant cells were not identified. Surgical excision was used for all patients, who are all alive but with disease at last follow-up. Sinonasal tract EAF is a unique fibroproliferative disorder that does not seem to have systemic associations with known diseases. The characteristic histomorphologic features permit accurate diagnosis.
PubMed ID: 11211613
Article Size: <1 MB

Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the sinonasal tract: a clinicopathological study of 13 cases with a review of the literature.

Knott PD, Gannon FH, Thompson LD.
Laryngoscope. 2003 May;113(5):783-90.
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the sinonasal tract is a rare, malignant tumor of extraskeletal origin. Isolated cases have been reported in the English literature, with no large series evaluating the clinicopathological aspects of these tumors.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: Thirteen patients with sinonasal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma were retrieved from the Otorhinolaryngologic-Head and Neck Registry of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
RESULTS: Nine women and 4 men (age range, 11 to 83 y; mean age, 38.8 y) presented with nasal obstruction (n = 8), epistaxis (n = 7), or mass effect (n = 4), or a combination of these. No patients reported prior head and neck irradiation. The maxillary sinus was the most common site of involvement (n = 9), followed by the ethmoid sinuses (n = 7) and the nasal cavity (n = 5). Tumors had an overall mean size of 5.1 cm. Microscopically, the tumors displayed a small, blue, round cell morphology appearance arranged in a hemangiopericytoma-like pattern with foci of cartilaginous matrix. All cases were managed by surgery with adjuvant radiation therapy (n = 4) and/or chemotherapy (n = 3). The overall mean survival was 12.1 years, although five of six patients who developed local recurrences died of disease (mean survival, 6.5 y). Six patients were alive and disease free (mean survival, 17.3 y), and two patients were lost to follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the sinonasal tract is an aggressive tumor with a predilection for young women. The pattern of growth and scarcity of cartilaginous matrix result in frequent misdiagnosis. Recurrence develops in approximately one-third of patients and seems to predict a poor prognosis. Aggressive, exenterative surgery combined with adjuvant therapy appears to yield the best clinical outcome.
PubMed ID: 12792311
Article Size: 2 MB

Nasal glial heterotopia: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic analysis of 10 cases with a review of the literature.

Penner CR, Thompson L.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2003 Dec;7(6):354-9.
Nasal glial heterotopia (also known as ‘nasal glioma’), is a rare developmental abnormality seen in a wide age group but typically presenting at birth or in early childhood. Failure to recognize the entity is the principle difficulty in diagnosis. Ten cases of nasal glial heterotopic diagnosed between 1970 and 2000 were identified. Histologic and immunohistochemical features were evaluated and patient follow-up was obtained. The patients included five females and five males with a mean age at presentation of 8.6 years (range, birth to 44 years). Most patients presented clinically with a polypoid mass in the nasal cavity, although two patients had a mass on the nasal bridge. Symptoms were present for an average of 2 to 3 months. A connection to the central nervous system was identified in one case. Masses ranged in size from 1 to 7 cm in greatest dimension (mean, 2.4 cm). Histologically, the masses were composed of astrocytes (including gemistocytic type) and neuroglial fibers intermixed with a fibrovascular connective tissue stroma. Neurons and ependymal cells were noted in two cases. Focal calcifications and inflammatory cells were identified occasionally. Masson trichrome stains the collagen intensely blue, while the neural population stains magenta. Immunohistochemical reactivity with glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 protein will help to confirm the histologic diagnosis, while collagen type IV and laminin can highlight the reactive fibrosis. All cases were managed by surgery. All patients were alive without complications at last follow-up (mean, 26.8 years), except for the single fetus included in the study. Nasal glial heterotopia typically involves the nasal cavity and usually presents perinatally, although three patients presented in adulthood. The subtle glial component on routine microscopy can be accentuated with a trichrome stain or by immunoreactivity with glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 protein. Imaging studies must be performed before surgery to exclude an encephalocele, which requires different surgery. Complete surgical excision of nasal glial heterotopias is curative.
PubMed ID: 15018118
Article Size: <1 MB

Sinonasal mucosal malignant melanoma: report of an unusual case mimicking schwannoma.

Kardon DE, Thompson LD.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2000 Oct;4(5):303-7.
Primary mucosal melanoma of the sinonasal tract is a rare malignancy that has a more aggressive clinical course than its cutaneous counterpart. The histology of these lesions varies, with differing degrees of melanin production and an epithelioid or spindle-cell growth pattern. Cutaneous melanocytic lesions may differentiate in accordance with their neural crest derivation and express morphology similar to nerve sheath tumors. We believe the following case study reports the first instance of a mucosal melanoma with a Schwannian pattern of growth, arising from the nasal cavity of a 26-year-old man. Extracranial meningiomas of the sinonasal tract are rare tumors. These tumors are frequently misclassified, resulting in inappropriate clinical management. To date, there has been no comprehensive study to evaluate the clinicopathologic aspects of meningioma in these anatomic sites. Thirty cases of sinonasal tract meningiomas diagnosed between 1970 and 1992 were retrieved from the files of the Otorhinolaryngic Registry of the AFIP. Histologic features were reviewed, immunohistochemical studies were performed, patient follow up was obtained, and the results were statistically analyzed. The patients included 15 females and 15 males, aged 13 to 88 years (mean, 47.6 yrs). Patients presented clinically with a mass, epistaxis, sinusitis, pain, visual changes, or nasal obstruction, dependent on the anatomic site of involvement. Symptoms were present for an average of 31.1 months. The tumors affected the nasal cavity (n = 14), nasopharynx (n = 3), frontal sinus (n = 2), sphenoid sinus (n = 2). or a combination of the nasal cavity and ethmoid, frontal, sphenoid, and/or maxillary sinuses (n = 9). The tumors ranged in size from 1.0 to 8.0 cm in greatest dimension (mean, 3.5 cm). Radiographic studies demonstrated a central nervous system connection in six cases. The tumors often eroded the bones of the sinuses (n = 18) and involved the surrounding soft tissues, the orbit, and occasionally the base of the skull. Histologically, the tumors demonstrated features similar to intracranial meningiomas. The majority were of the meningothelial type (n = 23), although there were three atypical meningiomas. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of meningioma with positive reactions for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and vimentin (all tested). The differential diagnosis includes paraganglioma, carcinoma, melanoma, psammomatoid ossifying fibroma, and angiofibroma. Surgical excision was used in all patients. Three patients died with recurrent disease (mean, 1.2 yrs), one was alive with recurrent disease (25.6 years), and the remaining 24 patients were alive or had died of unrelated causes (mean, 13.9 yrs) at the time of last follow up (two patients were lost to follow up). Extracranial sinonasal tract meningiomas are rare tumors which need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of sinonasal tumors. A whorled growth pattern and psammoma bodies, combined with positive EMA and vimentin immunohistochemical reactions, can confirm the diagnosis of meningioma. The overall prognosis is good, without a difference in outcome between benign and atypical meningiomas.
PubMed ID: 11073336
Article Size: <1 MB

Rhinosporidiosis.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2016 Mar;95(3):101..
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Rhinosporidium seeberi is the etiologic agent of a chronic, and usually painless, localized granulomatous infection of the mucous membranes of the sinonasal tract, conjunctiva, and urethra. Endemic in India and Sri Lanka, the disease is becoming more significant as a result of migration. R seeberi has not been definitively cultured but is thought to be a blue-green algae, with the infectious agent being a thick-walled sporangium containing endospores. It is passed to humans from animals (cats, free-grazing horses) or possibly fomites, identified in water or soil contaminated by waste.
PubMed ID: 26991216
Article Size: <1 MB

Malignant giant cell tumor of the sphenoid.

Chan J, Gannon FH, Thompson LD.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2003 Apr;7(2):100-5.
Malignant giant cell tumors (MGCTs) of the sphenoid sinus are extremely rare neoplasms. They are challenging to diagnose and difficult to treat because of their skull base location. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of a primary MGCT of the sphenoid arising in a patient with Paget’s disease. A 77-year-old man presented with epistaxis and a history of Paget’s disease. There was normal cranial nerve function although radiographic images disclosed a large mass centered in the sphenoid sinus and extending into the ethmoid and maxillary sinuses. Excisional biopsy revealed a MGCT composed of a cellular stroma with increased mitotic activity and necrosis with giant cells present throughout. Additional therapy was declined and the patient died with disease 7 months later. Because of their rarity, no treatment guidelines exist for the management of MGCTs of the sphenoid. We discuss both the diagnostic and therapeutic considerations based on a review of the pertinent literature.
PubMed ID: 12715335
Article Size: <1 MB

Epstein-Barr virus and human herpes virus-8 are not associated with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

Carlos R, Thompson LD, Netto AC, Pimenta LG, Correia-Silva Jde F, Gomes CC, Gomez RS.
Head Neck Pathol. 2008 Sep;2(3):145-9.
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (also known as juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma) is a rare fibroblastic tumor with a vascular component that occurs in the nasopharynx and posterolateral nasal wall of adolescent boys. The etiology of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma remains elusive. This investigation was undertaken to determine if human herpes simplex virus-8 and Epstein-Barr virus are possible etiologic viruses and to determine if they have any association with the age of the patient and/or the proliferative state of the lesion.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin fixed, routinely processed, and paraffin embedded surgical specimens of 15 angiofibromas were submitted to PCR for EBV and HHV-8, while in situ hybridization was also employed for EBV. Immunohistochemical analysis for ki-67 was performed using MIB immunostaining.
RESULTS: None of the tumors were positive for HHV-8. The PCR technique produced a false positive reaction in five cases, with all cases non-reactive with EBV-ISH. The age of the patients did not show correlation with the Ki-67 labeling index.
CONCLUSION: Angiofibroma does not appear to be associated with either HHV-8 or EBV, thereby excluding these viruses as potential etiologic agents. The lack of a correlation between the proliferative index and the age of the patient suggests the proposed puberty induced, testosterone-dependent tumor growth may not play a significant role in tumor development.
PubMed ID: 20614308
Article Size: <1 MB

Endoscopic Management of Recurrent Anterior Skull Base Schwannoma

Lee J, Thompson L, Garg R, Keschner D, Shibuya T.
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2013, pp. 52-56.
Objectives: Sinonasal schwannomas account for less than 4% of head and neck schwannomas, with the primary treatment modality being surgical excision via external approaches. The aim of this report is to present a rare case of recurrent schwannoma of the ethmoid cavity involving the anterior skull base which was successfully managed with endoscopic resection. Study Design: Case report and review of the literature. Methods: The clinical presentation, radiographic features, histopathologic characteristics, surgical approach, and patient outcome were examined in the context of a literature review. Results: A 43-year-old woman presented with a 9-month history of left facial pain and pressure. She had a prior history of sinonasal schwannoma excision with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak repair via bifrontal craniotomy in 2007. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nasal endoscopy revealed a left ethmoid mass measuring 2.2 cm × 2.7 cm × 2.4 cm abutting the anterior skull base. The tumor was completely removed using a transnasal endoscopic approach, and the anterior skull base reconstructed with tensor fascia lata graft. Histology of the specimen showed schwannoma, and there has been no evidence of tumor recurrence nor CSF leak after 24 months of follow-up. Conclusion: With continual advances in surgical technique and instrumentation, sinonasal schwannomas have become increasingly more amenable to endoscopic resection even in the case of recurrence and skull base involvement.
PubMed ID: n/a
Article Size: >1 MB

Sinonasal tract mucosal melanoma.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2014 Oct-Nov;93(10-11):E49-50.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Mucosal melanoma is a neural-crest–derived neoplasm that originates in melanocytes and demonstrates melanocytic differentiation. Exposure to formalin and ultraviolet light are known etiologic factors; another possible factor is exposure to radiation. Approximately 15 to 20% of all skin melanomas develop on the head and neck, but less than 1% of all melanomas develop in ocular or mucosal sites, including the sinonasal tract.
PubMed ID: 25397394
Article Size: <1 MB

Wegener granulomatosis.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2013 Jan;92(1):18-22.
FIRST PARAGRAPHS: Wegener granulomatosis presents clinically as ulcerative and crusted lesions with tissue destruction. Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is an idiopathic, nonneoplastic, aseptic, necrotizing disease characterized by vasculitis and destructive properties. In general, affected patients exhibit disease in the sinonasal tract, lungs, and kidney, in some cases metachronously. Patients may present with systemic or localized disease; patients with systemic disease are usually quite sick. Disease progression may be seen when localized disease becomes systemic, but many patients will remain with limited disease.
PubMed ID: 23354886
Article Size: <1 MB

Paranasal sinus mucocele.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2012 Jul;91(7):276-8.
FIRST PARAGRAPHS: Radiographic findings are essential to the diagnosis of paranasal sinus mucocele. Usually opacification of the sinus with thinning, erosion, or destruction of the sinus wall are seen. Mucocele of the paranasal sinuses is a distinct clinicopathologic entity in which there is obstruction of the sinus cavity outflow tract, resulting in expansion of the sinus walls. The histologic features are quite nonspecific, requiring clinical, radiologic, and pathologic correlation. Most of these lesions result from increased pressure in the sinus due to sinus outlet obstruction, usually as a consequence of inflammatory or allergic processes. However, tumor, trauma, and previous surgery may play a role.
PubMed ID: 22829031
Article Size: <1 MB

Oral lichen planus.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2012 Mar;91(3):102-4.
FIRST PARAGRAPHS: The cause of lichen planus is not known. Its treatment depends on the specific type–reticular, erosive, or bullous–and usually includes topical or systemic corticosteroids and topical antifungal agents. Patients require lifelong monitoring and/or therapy. Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic, self-limited, inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that involves mucous membranes, skin, nails, and hair. It is postulated that there is an abnormal T-cell-mediated immune response that results in disruption of the basement membrane. Several drugs are known to be associated with the onset of LP, but the exact mechanism is unknown.
PubMed ID: 22430334
Article Size: MB

Allergic fungal sinusitis.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2011 March;90(3):106-107.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Allergic fungal sinusitis, also known as allergic mucin and eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis, is an allergic response in the sinonasal tract mucosa to aerosolized fungal allergens, amplified and perpetuated by eosinophils. The class II genes in the major histocompatibility complex are involved in antigen presentation and immune response (modulation), and an allergic reaction develops to inhaled fungal elements in immunocompetent people. Aspergillus species are the most common agents (widespread in soil, wood, and decomposing plant material), but Alternaria, Bipolaris, Curvularia, Exserohilum, and Phialophora species have also been reported
PubMed ID: 21412738
Article Size: <1 MB

Intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2010 Jan;89(1):16-8.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Adenocarcinomas of the sinonasal tract can originate in the respiratory epithelium or the underlying mucoserous glands. Most (60%) arise from the mucoserous glands. These tumors are divided into two categories: salivary-gland-type and nonsalivary-gland-type adenocarcinomas (table). The latter are subdivided into two major categories: intestinal-type adenocarcinomas (ITACs) and nonintestinal-type adenocarcinomas.
PubMed ID: 20155693
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Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

Thompson LDR.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2007 Feb;86(2):79-80.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Ewing sarcoma (ES) and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) are closely related, high-grade, round-cell tumors with a neuroectodermal phenotype. These tumors are histologically considered on a morphologic spectrum, and they express similar genetic alterations. ES usually develops in bone and is more undifferentiated, while PNET tends to involve soft tissue and demonstrates more pronounced neuroendocrine features.
PubMed ID: 17385610
Article Size: <1 MB

Rhinoscleroma.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2002 Aug;81(8):506.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Rhinoscleroma (‘hard nose’) is caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, a gram-negative encapsulated bacterium of low infectivity. The disease is uncommon in the United States; most cases are found in the Middle East (especially Egypt), in parts of Latin America, and in Eastern Europe. The disease process usually involves the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx, but it can also involve the larynx, trachea, bronchi, middle ear, and orbit.
PubMed ID: 12199166
Article Size: <1 MB

Update on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

Thompson LDR.
Head Neck Pathol. 2007 Sep;1(1):81-6.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: The most common type of nasopharyngeal tumor is nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The etiology is multifactorial with race, genetics, environment and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) all playing a role. While rare in Caucasian populations, it is one of the most frequent nasopharyngeal cancers in Chinese, and has endemic clusters in Alaskan Eskimos, Indians, and Aleuts. Interestingly, as native-born Chinese migrate, the incidence diminishes in successive generations, although still higher than the native population.
PubMed ID: 20614287
Article Size: <1 MB

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Thompson L.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2005 Jul;84(7):404-5.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: The most common type of nasopharyngeal tumor is a carcinoma. The etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is multifactorial; race, genetics, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and the environment all play a role. NPC is rare in white populations, but it is one of the most common cancers among Chinese. EBV is almost always present in NPC, indicating that this virus plays an oncogenic role. The viral titer can be used to monitor therapy or possibly as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients who present with a metastasis from an unknown primary. Exposure to environmental carcinogens, especially high levels of volatile nitrosamines (specifically, those in Cantonese-style salted fish), has been implicated in this complicated disorder; carcinogens related to smoking, formaldehyde exposure, and radiation have also been implicated.
PubMed ID: 16813025
Article Size: <1 MB

Sinonasal polyps.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2007 Jun;86(6):322, 325
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Sinonasal polyps are caused by a multitude of factors. The most common causes are repeated bouts of sinusitis, allergy, vasomotor rhinitis, infectious rhinosinusitis, and asthma. Less often, they occur in association with diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, and aspirin intolerance. They form as a result of an influx of fluids into the schneiderian mucosal lamina propria. Occasionally, antral (maxillary) polyps expand and prolapse through sinus ostia to present intranasally or in the nasopharynx (antrochoanal polyps). Sinonasal polyps have no predisposition to age or sex. Polyps are uncommon in children, but when they do occur, as many as 30% are associated with cystic fibrosis.
PubMed ID: 17703805
Article Size: <1 MB

Pharyngeal dermoids (‘hairy polyps’) as accessory auricles.

Heffner DK, Thompson LD, Schall DG, Anderson V.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1996 Oct;105(10):819-24.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the origin and nature of so-called hairy polyps or dermoids of the pharynx, which are often thought to be a variant of pharyngeal teratoma. For this purpose, a case is reported of a dermoid polyp involving the middle ear of an infant, the features of multiple examples of pharyngeal dermoid polyps and teratomas received for consultation by the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology are examined, and selected pertinent reports from the literature are reviewed. All three means are used to support the conclusion that these lesions are choristomatous developmental anomalies arising from the first branchial cleft area and that they essentially represent heterotopic accessory ‘ears’ (auricles) without the growth potential of a teratoma.
PubMed ID: 8865778
Article Size: <1 MB

Nasal glial heterotopia.

Penner CR, Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2004 Feb;83(2):92-3.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Nasal glial heterotopia (nasal glioma) is the term used to describe a mass made up of mature brain tissue that is isolated from the cranial cavity or spinal canal. Most of these rare, benign, congenital tumors are found in the nasal region, particularly at the bridge of the nose and in the nasal cavity. Nasal glial heterotopia is frequently diagnosed in newborns; a few cases have been found in adults.
PubMed ID: 15008441
Article Size: <1 MB

Sinonasal tract glomangiopericytoma (hemangiopericytoma).

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2004 Dec;83(12):807.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: A glomangiopericytoma (sinonasal-type hemangio-pericytoma) is a tumor believed to derive from perivascular modified smooth-muscle cells. Its origin is similar to that of a glomus tumor (not to be confused with glomus jugulare, which is a different neoplasm) but distinctly different from soft-tissue hemangiopericytoma. There is a very slight female preponderance, and the tumor’s peak incidence occurs during the seventh decade of life. Most affected patients experience nasal obstruction and epistaxis along with a wide array of other nonspecific findings that are generally present for less than 1 year. Glomangiopericytomas have a predilection for the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, where they grow as polypoid masses. Their average size is approximately 3 cm, and they are often mistaken clinically for inflammatory polyps.
PubMed ID: 15724732
Article Size: <1 MB