Orbital infantile myofibroma: a case report and clinicopathologic review of 24 cases from the literature.

Mynatt CJ, Feldman KA, Thompson LD.
Head Neck Pathol. 2011 Sep;5(3):205-15.
Isolated orbital infantile myofibroma are rare tumors in the head and neck. The mass-like clinical presentation and variable histologic features result in frequent misdiagnosis and potentially inappropriate clinical management. There are only a few reported cases in the English literature. Twenty-four patients with orbital infantile myofibroma or myofibromatosis were compiled from the English literature (Medline 1960–2011) and integrated with this case report. The patients included 14 males and 10 females, aged newborn to 10 years (mean, 34.8 months), who presented with a painless mass in the infra- or supraorbital regions, usually increasing in size andassociated with exophthalmos (n = 5). Females were on average older than their male counterparts (38.9 vs. 31.9 months, respectively; P = 0.71). The tumors were twice as frequent on the left (n = 16) than right (n = 8). Patients experienced symptoms for an average of 2.7 months before clinical presentation. The tumors involved the bone (n = 17) or the soft tissues (n = 7) of the orbit, with extension into the nasal or oral cavity (n = 3). The mean size was 3.0 cm, with a statistically significant difference between males and females (mean: 3.9 vs. 1.82; P = 0.0047), but without any differences based on age at presentation (P = 0.25), duration of symptoms (P = 0.66), or bone or soft tissue involvement (P = 0.51). Grossly, all tumors were wellcircumscribed, firm to rubbery, homogenous, and white– grey. Histologically, the tumors were biphasic, showing whorled and nodular areas of fusiform cells with extracellular collagen, mixed with a population of small, primitiveappearing, darkly staining cells. Necrosis was not present, but mitoses could be seen. Tumors with immunohistochemistry performed showed strong and diffuse smooth muscle actin and vimentin immunoreactivity, but were negative with muscle specific actin, desmin, MYOD1, myogenin, S100 protein, GFAP, keratin, CD31, 34, Factor VIIIR-Ag, and CD45RB. The principle histologic differential diagnosis includes juvenile hyaline fibromatosis, fibrous hamartoma of infancy, fibromatosis coli, leiomyoma, infantile hemangiopericytoma, infantile fibrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and lymphoma. All patients were managed with surgery. Recurrences developed in two patients at 4 and 6 months, respectively. Follow-up data was available on all but two patients (n = 22). These patients were either alive without evidence of disease (n = 18), alive but with disease (n = 3), or had died unrelated to this disease (i.e., neuroblastoma, n = 1). Orbital infantile myofibroma is a rare tumor, presenting in infancy as an enlarging mass of the orbit, with characteristic histomorphologic and immunophenotypic features. Orbital disease is usually isolated rather than part of systemic disease, and shows an excellent long-term prognosis, making appropriate separation from other conditions important.
PubMed ID: 21512784
Article Size: 2.5 MB

Primary extracranial meningiomas: An analysis of 146 cases.

Rushing, EJ, Bouffard JP, McCall S, Olsen C, Mena H, Sandberg GD, Thompson LDR.
Head Neck Pathol. 2010 Mar;4(1):37-43.
Primary extracranial meningiomas are rare neoplasms, frequently misdiagnosed, resulting in inappropriate clinical management. To date, a large clinicopathologic study has not been reported. One hundred and forty-six cases diagnosed between 1970 and 1999 were retrieved from the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Histologic features were reviewed, immunohistochemistry analysis was performed (n = 85), and patient follow-up was obtained (n = 110). The patients included 74 (50.7%) females and 72 (49.3%) males. Tumors of the skin were much more common in males than females (1.7:1). There was an overall mean age at presentation of 42.4 years, with a range of 0.3–88 years. The overall mean age at presentation was significantly younger for skin primaries (36.2 years) than for ear (50.1 years) and nasal cavity (47.1 years) primaries. Symptoms were in general non-specific and reflected the anatomic site of involvement, affecting the following areas in order of frequency: scalp skin (40.4%), ear and temporal bone (26%), and sinonasal tract (24%). The tumors ranged in size from 0.5 up to 8 cm, with a mean size of 2.3 cm. Histologically, the majority of tumors were meningothelial (77.4%), followed by atypical (7.5%), psammomatous (4.1%) and anaplastic (2.7%). Psammoma bodies were present in 45 tumors (30.8%), and bone invasion in 31 (21.2%) of tumors. The vast majority were WHO Grade I tumors (87.7%), followed by Grade II (9.6%) and Grade III (2.7%) tumors. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells labeled for EMA (76%; 61/80), S-100 protein (19%; 15/78), CK 7 (22%; 12/55), and while there was ki-67 labeling in 27% (21/78), 3% of cells were positive. The differential diagnosis included a number of mesenchymal and epithelial tumors (paraganglioma, schwannoma, carcinoma, melanoma, neuroendocrine adenoma of the middle ear), depending on the anatomic site of involvement. Treatment and follow-up was available in 110 patients: Biopsy, local excision, or wide excision was employed. Follow-up time ranged from 1 month to 32 years, with an average of 14.5 years. Recurrences were noted in 26 (23.6%) patients, who were further managed by additional surgery. At last follow-up, recurrent disease was persistent in 15 patients (mean, 7.7 years): 13 patients were dead (died with disease) and two were alive; the remaining patients were disease free (alive 60, mean 19.0 years, dead 35, mean 9.6 years). There is no statistically significant difference in 5-year survival rates by site: ear and temporal bone: 83.3%; nasal cavity: 81.8%; scalp skin: 78.5%; other sites: 65.5% (P = 0.155). Meningiomas can present in a wide variety of sites, especially within the head and neck region. They behave as slow-growing neoplasms with a good prognosis, with longest survival associated with younger age, and complete resection. Awareness of this diagnosis in an unexpected location will help to avoid potential difficulties associated with the diagnosis and management of these tumors.
PubMed ID: 19644540
Article Size: <1 MB

Spindle-cell lipoma.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2009 Jul;88(7):992-3.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Histologically, spindle-cell lipoma is a distinctive type of lipoma on a continuum with pleomorphic lipoma. It accounts for approximately 1.5% of all adipose tissue neoplasms. Men are affected significantly more commonly than women (9:1) at a mean age in the sixth decade. The vast majority of tumors are located in the subcutaneous tissue of the posterior neck, upper back, and shoulders. Patients present with a painless, mobile, subcutaneous mass. In rare cases, these tumors develop in other head and neck mucosal sites, such as the buccal fat pad. Spindle-cell lipomas grow as large as 13 cm (mean: 3.5). Grossly, they resemble ordinary lipomas, although they may be somewhat firmer, especially if the spindle-cell component predominates.
PubMed ID: 19623524
Article Size: <1 MB

Myeloid sarcoma of the breast soft tissue following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

Chou JL, Thompson LD.
J Case Rep Images Oncology 2016;2:71–73.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: A 47-year-old female presented with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) without detectable cytogenetic abnormality from the bone marrow specimen. Initially, she received azacytidine while awaiting bone marrow transplantation (BMT). After successful allogeneic BMT from a mismatched related donor, she received post-transplant care including management of transplant-related toxicity and skin manifestations of graft versus host disease (GVHD) in a designated BMT center. Subsequent bone marrow showed no evidence of MDS, and she is currently free from GVHD.
Article Size: <1 MB