Medullary thyroid carcinoma.

Thompson LD.
Ear Nose Throat J. 2010 Jul;89(7):301-2.
FIRST PARAGRAPH: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignant epithelial tumor of the thyroid gland that exhibits C-cell differentiation. C cells arise from the ultimobranchial body, which is derived from the fourth pharyngeal pouch, and they are found in the upper and middle areas of the thyroid lobes. These cells produce calcitonin, a hormone involved in calcium homeostasis. While a number (20%) of MTCs are associated with the autosomal-dominant inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes (specifically MEN2A and MEN2B), most (80%) cases are sporadic. Germline or somatic mutations of the RET gene are characteristic of this tumor. They usually involve an activating point mutation of 10q11.2. Specifically, codon 634 in exon 11 is most common in MEN2A, while codon 918 in exon 16 is most common in MEN2B.
PubMed ID: 20628986
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