Carcinoma Ex-Schneiderian Papilloma (Malignant Transformation): A Clinicopathologic and Immunophenotypic Study of 20 Cases Combined with a Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

Nudell J, Chiosea S, Thompson LD.
Head Neck Pathol. 2014 Sep;8(3):269-286.
Schneiderian papilloma (SP) are uncommon tumors with malignant transformation even less common. The histologic criteria to define malignant transformation are not well developed nor is the immunohistochemical profile reported in a large series of carcinomas. 20 cases of malignant transformation of SP included 7 females and 13 males, aged 38-86 years (mean 60.7 years). Patients presented most frequently with a mass (n = 11) and obstructive symptoms (n = 7), present for 38.7 months (mean). Most patients had no previous history of SP (n = 13); metachronous carcinoma was identified in 7 patients an average of 34.4 months after the first diagnosis of SP, with 1-4 recurrences of SP. With a mean size of 4.1 cm, the majority of tumors involved a combination of more than one anatomic site (n = 10), followed by the maxillary sinus only (n = 5) or nasal cavity only (n = 3). Histologically, 17 were inverted and 3 exophytic type SP. There were 17 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 1 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, comprising from 10 to 95 % of the tumor volume. Malignant histologic features included atypical mitoses, necrosis, bone invasion, lymphovascular invasion, decreased transmigrating neutrophils, paradoxical maturation, dyskeratosis and/or perineural invasion (n = 3). Patients tended to present with advanced stage (n = 14, Stage III and IV). Immunohistochemical studies showed positive reactions in the malignancies for CK5/6 (86 %), p63 (86 %), CK7 (luminal, 50 %), p53 (83 %), and p16 (25 %). In situ hybridization detected human papillomavirus in 26 %. Surgery was often accompanied by radiation therapy (n = 13), with a mean of 2.4 years of follow-up. Five patients developed a recurrence between 0.8 and 3.3 years. Carcinomas ex-SP are less common and are associated with better outcome than previously reported. Patients tend to present with a synchronous carcinoma, developing in an inverted type SP, with squamous cell carcinoma the most common malignancy. Development of metachronous carcinomas ex-SP was always preceded by SP recurrence in this series.
PubMed ID: 24519376
Article Size: 1.7 MB