Canalicular Adenoma: A Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Analysis of 67 Cases with a Review of the Literature

Thompson LD, Bauer JL, Chiosea S, McHugh JB, Seethala RR, Miettinen M, Müller S.
Head Neck Pathol. 2015 Jun;9(2):181-95.
There is a lack of a comprehensive immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of canalicular adenoma (CanAd), especially when combined with a description of the unique histologic features. Given the usual small biopsies, IHC may be useful in distinguishing CanAd from other tumors in the differential diagnosis. Retrospective. The patients included 54 females and 13 males (4.2:1), aged 43-90 years, with a mean age at presentation of 69.9 years. Clinical presentation was generally a mass (n = 61) slowly increasing in size (mean 38.5 months), affecting the upper lip (n = 46), buccal mucosa (n = 17) or palate (n = 4), involving the right (n = 29), left (n = 24) or midline (n = 9), without any major salivary gland tumors. The tumors ranged in size from 0.2 to 3 cm (mean 1.2 cm). Most tumors were multilobular or bosselated (76 %), often surrounded by a capsule. Histologically, the tumors were characterized by cystic spaces, tumor cords with beading, tubule formation, and by the presence of luminal squamous balls (n = 41). The cells were cuboidal to columnar with stippled chromatin. Mitoses were inconspicuous. A myxoid stroma (n = 64), sclerosis (n = 42), luminal hemorrhage (n = 51), and luminal microliths (calcifications) (n = 33) were characteristic. Nine (13.4 %) were multifocal. CanAd showed the following characteristic immunohistochemistry findings: CK-pan and S100 protein (strong, diffuse reaction); peripheral or luminal GFAP reaction; CK5/6 and p16 luminal squamous ball reaction; SOX10 nuclear reaction; cytoplasmic p63 reaction. CanAd are unique minor salivary gland tumors showing a distinct architecture and phenotype. They predilect to older women, with the majority multilobulated and affecting the upper lip, multifocal in 13 %; no major salivary gland tumors were identified. S100 protein, CK-pan, GFAP and SOX10 are positive, with luminal squamous balls highlighted by CK5/6 or p16.
PubMed ID: 25141970
Article Size: 4.5 MB