Ear Nose Throat J. 2013 Sep;92(9):426-8.
FIRST PARAGRAPHS: Nodules usually affect the anterior to middle thirds of the true vocal folds, and they are nearly always bilateral. About 1.5% of the overall population suffers from hoarseness; among the most common causes of hoarseness are vocal fold nodules and polyps. Vocal fold nodules and polyps represent reactive changes of the laryngeal mucosa and adjacent stroma that result in benign nodular or polypoid growths. Their etiology is multifactorial, but vocal misuse is one of the most common causes, followed by infection, smoking, and hypothyroidism. Extroverts are more likely to develop nodules and polyps.
PubMed ID: 24057901
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